King of Caria, with his sister/wife Artemisia, in the period of Persian rule in Asia Minor. Caria, with other hellenized states, enjoyed considerable independence under Persia, minting their own coins and maintaining dynastic rule. Mausolus devised for himself a great tomb, which was finished by his wife after his death in 353 BC. It employed major sculptors brought over from mainland Greece (not east Greece) and gives its name to all later 'mausolea'.
Above: Plaster cast of a marble statue from Halikarnassos, known as 'Mausolus'. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum Cast Gallery B097c © Ashmolean Museum.