Argos (1) A major city in the central Peloponnese (S. Greece). Important in the Bronze Age, as the seat of the hero king Diomedes (1). In historic times it controlled the Argive Plain which included major centres at Nauplion on the coast, Mycenae and Tiryns. In the 7th century BC, under Pheidon, it was a major power but of less account later, and neutral in the Persian Wars. It supported Sparta against Athens, and was generally a rival of Corinth. A major dependent sanctuary of Hera lay 10 km from the town.
Argos (2) A guardian figure appointed by Hera to stalk Io, whom Zeus had turned into a heifer, to mate with her. He is shown in art either with two heads or with eyes all over his body. Zeus sends Hermes to slay him.
Above left: Site of Sanctuary of Hera. Photo. Florence Maskell. © Beazley Archive, Florence Maskell,
Above right: Map of Greece and the Aegean. Ian Hiley, Beazley Archive. © Beazley Archive, Ian Hiley.