17. Royalty, deities or others unidentified

A. King or god seated

The commonest type has a figure with pointed crown or helmet, holding a staff or spear sceptre, seated on a chair or sphinx throne, and raising a hand towards a flaming incense-burner. The type of incense-burner and sphinx-throne makes the context purely Phoenician, although we find the scheme used also for Egyptian-type deities. Culican, AJBA 1 (1968) 57-62, takes the figure for Baal, with the iconography deriving from Egypt, and the figure's broad sleeves possibly the result of Persian dress influence. The type is further discussed in Gubel, Furn passim. It is clearly one that was already well established in the Syro-Phoenician area before the Persian period, and accordingly remains popular there in other materials. Some figures are goddesses, wholly egyptianizing but to varying degrees including Levantine elements that suggest an attempt at some local identity, generally taken to be Astarte: E. Gubel, RA+SJ 8 (1980) 1-17; Studia Phoenicia 1 (1983) 52 on fig. 17 (de Clercq no. 2756).

West

17/1 Ibiza no. 67 (Barcelona 9346). Gubel, Furn no. 16. BH;EXnb;PB. Sphinx throne; holding papyrus sceptre; disc-and-crescent above. V

Gem image

View larger image

17/2 Ibiza no. 68 (Madrid 36542). Gubel, Furn no. 17. BH;EXnb;PB; on a silver hoop B. As the last but with palm-leaf sceptre. III

Gem image

View larger image

17/3 Ibiza no. 69 (Ibiza 4728). Gubel, Furn no. 98. BH;EXO. IV

Gem image

View larger image

17/4 Ibiza no. 70 (Moreno 2). Gubel, Furn no. 97. BL;EXnb. Disc-and-crescent above. V

Gem image

View larger image

17/5 Ibiza no. 71. Gubel, Furn no. 133. BH;EXO. IV

Gem image

View larger image

17/6 Ibiza no. 72. Gubel, Furn no. 119. BL. IV

Gem image

View larger image

17/7 Tharros pl. 58a (BM ANE 133320), London no. 375. Gubel, Furn no. 142. On gold hoop . BH;EXO. III

Gem image

View larger image

17/8 Tharros pl. 58b (BM ANE 133689), London no. 376. Gubel, Furn no. 18. BH; EXnb. Sphinx throne; holding spear sceptre; winged disc above. V

Gem image

View larger image

17/9 Cagliari. NBAS 2 (1985) 195, fig. 3 (Acquaro).

No image available

17/10 Cagliari 22, from Tharros. BH. Summary. IV

No image available

17/11 Cagliari 19764, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.4; RSF 17 (1989) pl. 12c (Acquaro); Gubel, Furn no. 153. BH;EXnb. Folding stool; shoulders axe; star and disc-and-crescent above. V

Gem image

View larger image

17/12 Cagliari 9504 (Spano 64), from Tharros. NBAS 2 (1985) 195, fig. 4 (as 19765; Acquaro).BH. III

Gem image

View larger image

17/13 Cagliari 19765, from Tharros. BH. Star above. IV

Gem image

View larger image

17/14 Cagliari 9496 (Spano 27), from Tharros. BL;EXCR. Summary; two stars above; small figure beyond the burner. II

Gem image

View larger image

17/15 Cagliari 9473 (Spano 23), from Tharros. BL;EXCR. Summary; star above. IV

Gem image

View larger image

17/16 Spano Coll., from Tharros. Abr Nahran 2 (1960/1) fig. 1c (Culican); Marmora, pl. B 78; Gubel, Furn no. 141; Hölbl, Sard no. 115. BH;EXO. Star above. V

Drawing of gem

View larger image

17/17 Sclavo Coll., from Tharros. Ebers, pl. G 46. BH;EXO. Star above. III

Gem image

View larger image

17/18 Sclavo Coll., from Tharros. Ebers, pl. F 8. BL. Goddess? III

Gem image

View larger image

17/19 Spano Coll. Ebers, pl. H 63; Gubel, Furn no. 143. BL. Figure on stool, flat headdress, with staff (?). IV

Gem image

View larger image

17/20 Spano Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. A 40; Hölbl, Sard no. 40. BL;EXnb. Disc headdress; khnum sceptre; incense-burner.

No image available

17/21 Sassari, from Tharros (Chessa). NBAS 2 (1985) 197, fig. 5 (Acquaro). BH;EXO.

No image available

17/22 Biggio pl. 19.1, from Sulcis. Gubel, Furn no. 19. BH;EXnb. Sphinx throne; spear sceptre; winged disc above.

Gem image

View larger image

17/23 Milan (once Busacchi), from Tharros. BAS 4, 97, pl. 2.25; Abr Nahran 2 (1960/1) fig. 1e (Culican); Gubel, Furn no. 58. BH;EXnb. Winged disc above. V

Drawing of gem

View larger image

17/24 Carthage no. 584. Gubel, Furn no. 130. BH;EXO. IV

Gem image

View larger image

17/25 Carthage no. 586. Gubel, Furn no. 131. BH;EXO. V

Gem image

View larger image

17/26 Tunis Museum. BH;EXnb. Disc-and-crescent above.

Gem image

View larger image

17/27 Monte Sirai II, pl. 48.4, 121, no. 103, fig. 6, tomb 11; Saggi Fenici I, pl. 6.9 (Bondi); Gubel, Furn no. 151; Studia Punica 10 (1996) fig. 8.9 (Moscati). BL;EXCR. III

Gem image

View larger image

17/28 Malibu, from Sicily? IR no. 112; Gubel, Furn no. 28. BL;EXnb. Sphinx throne, disc-and-crescent above. III

Gem image

View larger image


East

17/29 London market, from Asia Minor. BL;EXCR. Summary. II

No image available

17/30 Nicosia D 11 (Myres 4581), from Marion, tomb 10. JHS 11 (1890) 54, fig. 1 (Myres); AJBA 1 (1968) 57, fig. 2 (Culican); Gubel, Furn no. 12; Reyes, no. 110. BH;EXnb; on a gilt bronze hoop. On a sphinx-throne holding a spear sceptre; winged disc above. III

Gem image
View larger image

17/31 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2759, pl. 18 (E 25915). Gubel, Furn no. 75. EXCR; in silver mount. Summary. II

Gem image

View larger image

17/32 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2758, pl. 18 (E25908). RSJ 8 (1980) pl. 2.1-2 (Gubel); Gubel, Furn no. 70. BL; in a gold mount. Holds axe and palm sceptre; disc-and-crescent above. VI

Gem image

View larger image

17/33 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2757, pl. 18, from Byblos (E25916). Gubel, Furn no. 6; Biblo pl. 5.14 (Gubel). BL;EXZ. Sphinx throne, holding incense cones?; incense-burner; winged disc above. VI

Gem image

View larger image

17/34 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2755, pl. 18 (E 25919). Gubel, Furn no. 74. BL;EXO. Head not clear. III

Gem image

View larger image


Other

17/35 Paris, Louvre AO.11088. BH;EXO. Crude. II

No image available

17/36 Hänggi Coll., Basel (once von Bissing). Hornung/Stehelin, pl. 104.921; Gubel, Furn no. 60. EXnb. Winged disc above.

Gem image & drawing

View larger image

17/37 Liverpool 53.114.411. BH;EXCR. Star above. V

No image available

17/38 London no. 282, pl. 6. Gubel, Furn no. 57. BH;EXnb; on a gold hoop. Winged disc above. III

Gem image

View larger image

17/39 Paris, BN 1056. Lajard, pl. 68.27; AJBA 1 (1968) 61, fig. 3 (Culican); Gubel, Furn no. 117. BL;EXCR. Disc-and-crescent above; eye (?) beyond burner. VI

Gem image

View larger image

17/40 New York, Rosen 192. BH;EXCR;PB. Star above. IV

Gem image

View larger image

17/41 Monte Carlo Market. Hotel Hermitage, 13.11.82, no. 509; Syria 62 (1985) 184, fig. 9. BL;EXCR. Leaf sceptre; disc-and-crescent above. II

No image available

17/42 Switzerland, private (W/B no. 696). BL;EXnb. Sphinx throne. Disc-and-crescent above. III

No image available


B. As Type A, but without the burner.

West

17/43 Pres. Ena Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. A 23; Gubel, Furn no. 169; Hölbl, Sard no. 243. BL;EXnb. King seated holding sceptre (?), before him a figure kills (sacrifices) a quadruped over an altar or table, cutting its throat. Above, star and winged disc. VI

Drawing of gem
View larger image

17/44 Cav. Grixoni Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 79. BL;Exnb. King on stool with staff, before him a small dressed figure.

Drawing of gem

View larger image

17/45 Spano Coll., from Tharros. Culican, fig. 1d; Marmora, pl. A 29; Gubel, Furn no. 24; Hölbl, Sard no. 112. BL;EXnb. King seated on winged sphinx throne; holding a waz sceptre, a spear beside it. His crown has uraei fore and aft. V

Drawing of gem

View larger image

17/45 bis Private collection (C. Wagner), Oxford; Internet auction: Ebay, 18 Aug, 2011 (Antiquities Unlimited, Ferryside, United Kingdom); previously W. G. Lambert. BH;EXnb. King seated on winged sphinx throne; holding a spear sceptre. A crescent moon above.

Drawing of gem

View larger image

17/46 Cagliari, from Tharros (Cara). NBAS 2 (1985) 195, fig. 2 (Acquaro). BH;EXnb. Sphinx throne; cap with tassel; spear sceptre.

No image available

17/47 vacat

17/48 Spano Coll., from Tharros. BAS 9, 14. 'Two priests seated before altars.'

No image available


C. Figures standing before incense-burner

Usually holding a staff or spear, as in Type A.

West

17/49 Ibiza no. 64 (Ibiza 4380). C. Bonnet, Melqart (1988) pl. 5.16r. BL;EXCR. King shoulders axe(?). V

Gem image

View larger image

17/50 Ibiza no. 65 (Barcelona 9385). BL. II/III

Gem image

View larger image

17/51 Ibiza no. 66 (Madrid 36993). BL;EXnb. II/III

Gem image

View larger image

17/52 Cagliari 19770, from Tharros. BL;EXnb; in gold hoop B. A figure in pointed cap at either side of a burner; winged disc above. VI

Gem image

View larger image

17/53 Cagliari 19769, from Tharros. BH;EXnb; in silver hoop B. As the last; crescent above. II/VI

No image available

17/54 Cagliari 19768, from Tharros. BH. Holds spear, short dress, no headdress. VI

Gem image

View larger image

17/55 Tharros pl. 55a (BM ANE 133721), London no. 386, pl. 7. Hölbl, Sard no. 131. BH; double ground line. Long-haired figure holding staff with flower top and a hand raised. III

Gem image

View larger image

17/56 Carthage no. 617. BH;EXO. Short dress; holds vase? and animal-head sceptre. III

Gem image

View larger image


East

17/57 Lajard, pl. 68.26. BH;EXnb. Holds flower and spear sceptre, star above. VI

No image available

17/58 Impression, once Seyrig. BL;EXO. Summary figure before burner.

No image available

17/59 Nicosia 1934.1-15.4, from Salamis. Reyes, no. 112. BL. Crude figure. Possibly before a throne; crescents above and below.

Gem image

View larger image


Other

17/60 Paris, BN 1082. BL;EXnb. Two pointed-hat figures facing burner at one side; disc-and-crescent above. II/VI

No image available


D. In naiskos or on boat

West

17/61 Cagliari 19725, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.3; Gubel, Furn no. 140; Hölbl, Sard no. 116. BL;EXnb. Columns with triple leaf mouldings; the lintel carries a winged disc; within, a seated figure holding a spear staff, hand raised. V

Gem image

View larger image


East

17/62 London, BM ANE 103301 (67.9-15.98), from Beirut. BH. Top half missing. Seated between plants; the boat with lotus terminals. VI

No image available


Other materials

Types A, B

West

17/X1 Madrid 28561(?71), from Aliseda. Almagro-Gorbea, no. 144; RSF 21 (1993) Suppl. pl. 5.1; Gubel, Furn no. 90; Nicolini, pl. 95.148. Amethyst. BL;EXV; in gold mount with volutes, and variant hoop C. Male and female figures, crowned, seated facing each other, holding spear sceptres, hands raised, a palmette tree between them, which is attended by rampant wingless griffins; winged disc above. Early.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X2 Carthage no. 711. Gubel, Furn no. 15. Banded white stone. EXnb; in a gold mount. Sphinx throne.

Gem image (front & back)

View larger image

17/X3 Carthage no. 671. Gubel, Furn no. 166. Cornelian. BL;EXO. waz sceptre; winged disc above.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X4 Carthage no. 326. Gubel, Furn no. 168. Green glass. BL.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X5 Karthago III, no. 151. Clay bulla. Cf. no. 153, and no. 148, in different style, with parasol and flying bird.

No image available

17/X6 Cagliari 19820 (Castagnino). Gubel, Furn no. 21. Agate. Sphinx throne; spear sceptre.

No image available


East

17/X7 Karam Coll., Beirut. AJBA 1 (1968) 59, pl, 2a,c (Culican); Gubel, Furn no. 9. Clay bulla. EXCR. With spear sceptre on sphinx throne, faced by a figure in short dress holding a khnum sceptre and jug. Above, disc-and-crescent and winged disc.

Gem image & drawing
View larger image

17/X8 Unknown, from Phoenicia. Gubel, Furn no. 165. Material? BL;EXZ. Spear sceptre; disc-and-crescent above. From near Sidon.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X9 Byblos II, pl. 198.6950. Gubel, Furn no. 129. Haematite. BH;EXO. As Type A, star above.

No image available

17/X10 Private, Beirut, bought in Lebanon. Semitica 47 (1998) 58-60, fig. 3 (Gubel). Clay bulla. EXnb(?). On a sphinx throne; disc-and-crescent above.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X11 Once Aleppo, Marcopoli Coll., from Akerbat, Syria. Gubel, Furn no. 77. Agate scaraboid. BL;EX with lion. Attendant in short dress holds out disc (bread?) over incense-burner; star, disc-and-crescent and winged disc above.

Gem image
View larger image

17/X12 From Akerbat (between Homs and Palmyra). Mélanges... Saint-Joseph 7 (1914-21) 181-185, fig. 8. Agate (Ronzevalle). In gold mount. With tall crown, hands raised before an incense-burner; beyond it a dressed man holding out a wreath (?). Above, disc-and-crescent, a star, and winged sun disc. In the exergue a lion.

No image available


Other

17/X13 London BM ANE 134360. London no. 283, pl. 6; Zazoff, pl. 20.11; Gubel, Furn no. 20. Agate. BL;EXnb. Sphinx throne; disc above.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X14 London, UCL. Abr-Nahran 2 (1960-1) 45, fig. 2 (Culican); Gubel, Furn no. 113. Cornelian. BH;EXnb. As Type A, star and winged disc above; elaborated burner.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X15 Kassel no. 20, pl. 89 (II.25). Tassie, no. 422; AG pl. 15.2; Zazoff, pl. 20.10; Gubel, Furn no. 31. Cornelian. BL;EXCR. Winged disc above.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X16 Berlin VA 9717. Gubel, Furn no. 8. Agate cone. EXnb. Sphinx throne; spear sceptre; attendant; winged disc above. The shape is Babylonian/Persian.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X17 Unknown, impression in Oxford. 'Plasma'. BL;EXCR. Sphinx throne; spear sceptre.

Gem image

View larger image

17/X18 Stosch, sulphur; Tassie, no. 425. BL. With pointed crown on a block seat, shouldering an axe, hand raised.

No image available


Type C

17/X19 Ibiza no. 231 (Madrid 36967). Cornelian ringstone. BL;EXO. Stands, with pointed helmet, long dress (and cape?), shouldering axe.

Gem image

View larger image


Type D

17/X20 Cagliari 9454 (Spano), from Tharros. Marmora, pl. A 22; Ebers, pl. F 13; AJBA 1 (1968) 65, fig. 4 (Culican); RPA 49 (1976/7) 51-2, fig. 9 (Moscati); CRAI 1987, 494, fig. 10 (Moscati); Gubel, Furn no. 25; Hölbl, Sard no. 113, pl. 153; Homenaje Blazquez II (1994) fig. 1. Cornelian. BL:EXO; in gold hoop B. Columns with triple leaf mouldings; hatched lintel with disc-and-uraei, below cavetto with uraei; winged disc above. Within, seated figure with pointed headdress on sphinx throne, holding spear staff; at either side, pointed hat attendants with crook and jug. Ground line, vertically-hatched (the usual Egyptian pattern), linked lotus and bud below.

Gem image
View larger image

17/X21 Private, Beirut, bought in Lebanon. Semitica 47 (1998) 60-62, fig. 4 (Gubel). Clay bulla, from scarab in metal mount (?). EXnb(?). Figure with pointed headdress on sphinx throne before incense-burner. Columns with leaf mouldings; lintel with winged disc below uraei; disc above.

Gem image

View larger image