22. Bes

The figure was a popular one in Phoenician art, borrowed from Egypt but with points of contact iconographically with the Greek satyr. The head is gross, bearded (the beard cut straight), the body squat, legs short, often with a tail indicating the animal skin he wears (shown on the better pieces), the headdress is vertical feathers, sometimes with uraei or knobbed horns at either side, small animal ears. For a simpler classification of Bes with animals see Budapest 8-11. For Bes in Phoenicia see also W. Culican, AJBA 1 (1968) 93-98, supporting the view that the figure may have been equated with Eshmun. In RSF 8 (1980) 19-42 A.M. Bisi explores the relationship of Bes to Herakles. Essentially, both wear animal skins, and eastern iconography of a master of animals (including Bes) may affect groups of Herakles with animals, especially where he is shown as a master of animals (or an animal) rather than combatant, but there is probably no closer association to be sought. For Bes representations in the Persian Empire, including eastern scarabs, K. Abdi, Ars Orientalis 29 (1999) 113-140. Bes on other Cypriot seals - Reyes, nos. 136-139.

A. Head only

Usually frontal.

West

22/1 Gibraltar 22, from Gorham's Cave. AJBA 2 (1972) 135, fig. 3 (Culican); Lopez de la Orden, no. 5. BH.

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22/2 Gibraltar 23, from Gorham's Cave. Ibid.; Lopez de la Orden, no. 6 (inverted). BH;EXO.

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22/3 Ibiza no. 87 (Ibiza 3128). BH.

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22/4 Carthage no. 542. BH;EXO.

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22/5 Carthage no. 543. BH.

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22/6 Carthage no. 545. BH. III

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22/7 Tharros pl. 59a (BMWA 133610), London no. 369. Hölbl, Sard no. 165. BH. Two Bes heads without headdress, one inverted.

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22/8 Spano Coll., from Tharros. Hölbl, Sard no. 160. As the last?

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22/9 Cagliari 9483 Spano 15), from Tharros. Ebers, pl. F26; AG pl. 15.66; Hölbl, Sard no. 161. BH. Horns; over lotus and two buds.

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22/10 From Tharros (Cav. Grixoni). Marmora, pl. B 93. BL.

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Other

22/11 Paris, BN, Pauvert no. 39 (Castagnini Coll.). Hölbl, Sard no. 163. BH;PB. With uraei.

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22/12 Private. Wiegandt no. 43.

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B. Profile bust

Compare the heads, also with one forearm shown in 36D.

West

22/13 Cagliari 19795, from Tharros. Beaded border. Forearm shown, holding (?) a snake (?), crescent-and-disc.

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22/14 Cagliari 19796, from Tharros. BH. Forearm shown, holding a branch.

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C. Bes alone

East

22/15 Paris, Louvre E 25879. BH;EXCR. Standing frontal with papyri at either side.

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D. Bes fights a standing lion

On a few examples the lion faces away. Bes wrestles the lion, without a weapon, as does Herakles. On most he raises one leg towards the lion but the lion does not claw back. The devices are very oriental, often with BL, EXCR, disc-and-crescent, and some winged discs. Some are discussed by E. Gubel in RSF 16 (1988) 155-7. The type seems copied in Greece, with cornelian examples from Rhodes and perhaps farther east (ibid., 156; Malibu, IR no. 7) in a markedly different style. See also 38B where a Bes forepart is with and sometimes holding a lion

West

22/17 Gibraltar, from Gorham's cave. Independent Newspaper 29.6.1991, 5. BL;EXnb. Lion looks away; disc-and-crescent above.

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22/18 Ibiza no. 90 (Ibiza 3854). BH;EXO. Branch between. II/V

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22/19 Ibiza no. 91 (Ibiza 6129). BH;EXO. Branch between. II/V

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22/20 Carthage no. 548. BH;EXnbCR.

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22/21 Cagliari 19802, from Tharros. BH.

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22/22 Cagliari 19801, from Tharros. BH;EXCR. Lion looks away; disc-and-crescent. III

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22/23 Cagliari 19800, from Tharros. BH;EXCR. Lion looks away, winged disc above. II/III

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22/24 Coll. Spano, from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 73; Perrot, V, 658-9, fig. 474; BAS 4, pl. 2; Hölbl, Sard no. 148. BH;EXnb. Disc-and-crescent.

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22/25 Coll. Spano, from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 72; Hölbl, Sard no. 143. BH;EXO.

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22/26 Coll. Spano, from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 71; Hölbl, Sard no. 142. BL;EXCR. Disc-and-crescent.

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22/27 Cagliari, from Caralis, tomb 20bis. Taramelli, 159, fig. 73, pl. 60; Hölbl, Sard no. 146. BL. V

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22/28 Monte Sirai II, 120, no. 99, fig. 5 (as 100), pl. 48.1; Saggi Fenici I, pl. 5.6 (Bondi); Hölbl, Sard no. 149; Studia Punica 10 (1996) fig. 8.6 (Moscati). BL;EXCR. Winged disc above.

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22/29 From Monte Sirai. AG pl. 15.74; Hölbl, Sard no. 144.

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22/30 From Marzabotto. G. Gozzadini, Ultime scoperte di Marzabotto (n.d.) pl. 17.19. BL;EXCR. Disc-and-crescent. V

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East

22/31 Berlin no. 135 (F 102), from Tamassos (Cyprus), grave 11 (with 5th-century material). Reyes, no. 114. BL; EXCR. Disc-and-crescent and star.

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22/32 London, BM ANE soc.117, from Byblos. Biblo pl. 5.17 (Gubel). BH;EXCR; on a gold hoop with antelope head terminals B. Branch between. III

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22/33 London no. 318, from Tyre. [not seen]. Winged disc above.

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22/34 Impression, once Seyrig. AJBA 1 (1968) 70, pl. 3.4 (Culican); Nunn no. 45. BL;EXCR. Disc and winged disc; lion looks away. III

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22/35 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2776, pl. 18. EXCR; in a gold mount. Disc-and-crescent. III

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22/36 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2778, pl. 18. EXCR; mounted as pendant. Disc-and-crescent. II

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Other

22/37 Fribourg S 1989.2. H. Keel-Leu, Vorderas.Stempelsiegel (1991) no. 107. BL;EXnb. Bes has no crown.

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22/38 Swiss market. Nefer, Gems 1996, no. 4; Syria 76 (1999) 272, fig. 64. BL; EXCR. Winged disc, and disc-and-crescent above.

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22/39 Once Ready Coll., impression in Oxford. BL;EXCR. Disc-and-crescent. V

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22/40 London no. 279, pl. 5 (BM ANE 136036). RSF 8 (1980) pl. 4.7 (Bisi); Zazoff, pl. 21.6; Hölbl, Sard no. 147. BL;EXCR. I

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22/41 Hanover no. 15, pl. 4 (K2135). Zazoff, pl. 21.7. BL;EXCR. Disc-and-crescent.

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22/42 Geneva I, no. 157, pl. 64 (19813). RSF 8 (1980) pl. 5.2 (Bisi). BL;EXZ. Disc-and-crescent.

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22/43 Edinburgh, Royal Scottish Museum 1902.25 (comm. P.R.S. Moorey). Scaraboid.

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22/44 Malibu, IR no. 111. BL;EXCR. Branch between them. III

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22/45 Basel Market. MuM Sonderliste K, no. 104. BL;EXCR. V

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22/46 Paris, BN, N 3315. BL;EXCR. Disc-and-crescent. III

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E. Bes and two lions

Bes is frontal and the lions generally turn their heads away; they are very rarely held upside down.

West

22/47 Cagliari 9550 (Spano 17), from Tharros. Homenaje Blazquez II (1994) fig. 3. BL;EXV. Star above. III

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22/48 Visc. Acquer Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 69; Hölbl, Sard no. 134. BL. Winged disc above.

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22/49 R. Arcais Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 70. BH;EXO; Hölbl, Sard no. 135. Two stars.

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22/50 Chessa Coll., from Tharros. Hölbl, Sard no. 140. As the last.

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2/51 Spano2Coll. Ebers, pl. F 28; Hölbl, Sard no. 136(+bis). BL. III

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22/52 Tharros pl. 59b (BM ANE 133401), London no. 368. Hölbl, Sard no. 138. BL;EXCR;PB. The lions' heads frontal; they are clasped close. A small blank cartouche at either side. I

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22/53 Paris, Louvre A 1132, from Tharros. Delaporte II, pl. 104; Hölbl, Sard no. 139. BL;EXV. Star and disc-and-crescent above.

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East

22/54 Malibu, Getty no. 103, from Asia Minor. BH;EXO. Bes' legs in profile, skirted like a Gorgon.

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22/55 Malibu, Getty no. 104. BL;EXO. As the last but Bes grasps the lions round their waists, their backs to him.

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22/56 Jerusalem IAA 32.935, from Atlit. QDAP 2 (1933) no. 935; AJBA 1 (1968) 52, pl. 1.8 (Culican); CSAPI no. 22. BH;EXCR. Two stars above. III

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22/57 From Kamid el-Loz, 5th-cent. tomb. Kamid el-Loz III (1999) pl. 33.6; XV (1996) 139, no. 82; Nunn no. 34. BL;EXnb;PB. Two stars above. III

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22/58 Paris, Louvre E 25921. BL;EXO. Winged disc above; Bes' legs profile, running.

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22/59 Munich no. 216, pl. 24, from Syria. RSF 8 (1980) pl. 4.3 (Bisi); Nunn no. 40. BL;EXCR. Lions held upside down.

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22/60 Sternberg, Aukt. 21 (1988) no. 653, 'from Beirut'. BL; in silver mount and hoop D. Lions held upside down; a bull below.

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Other

22/61 Paris, BN, de Luynes 238. Aréthuse 5 (1928) pl. 8(7).12; Zazoff, pl. 21.4. BH;EXnb; in gold mount and hoop A. Disc-and-crescent and a rosette above. II/III

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22/62 Geneva III, no. 126. Nunn no. 35. BL;EXnb. Winged disc above.

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22/63 New York, Met.Mus. 41.160.163. BL;EXCR. Winged disc above. III

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22/64 Paris, BN, 1061. Lajard, pl. 68.15. BH;EXO. Two stars above. III

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22/65 Ward Coll. Archéologie au Levant (Recueil R. Saidah) 221-224. Nunn no. 43. BL;EXCR. Legs profile, running; lion heads turned away; winged disc above.

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F. Bes and two other animals (goats, fish, snakes)

The goats are held as the lions of the last group.

West

22/66 Cagliari 9551 (?9441; Spano 33), from Tharros. Homenaje Blazquez II (1994) fig. 4. BL;EXCR. Two goats. III

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East

22/67 From Sulcis. Hölbl, Sard no. 150. Frontal, holds two snakes.

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22/68 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2772, pl. 18, from Byblos (E 25945). Nunn no. 41. BL;EXCR(?). Two goats; winged (disc) above. III

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Other

22/69 Unknown, impression in Oxford. BL;EXCR. Two goats, heads down; winged disc above. Compare the Bes/satyr of AGGems no. 64 III

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22/70 Oxford III, no. 494 (1941.1130). GL;EXO. Two dolphins, heads-down.

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22/71 Sternberg, Aukt. 22 (1989) no. 472. BL;EXCR. Two goats.

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G. Bes with four animals

Bes is normally frontal but with legs in profile, walking, sometimes skirted. The creatures are lions, goats or uraei.

West

22/72 Ibiza no. 89 (Madrid 37030). BL;EXCR. Two goats and two uraei. VI

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22/73 Cagliari 19791, from Tharros. BL;EXCR; on a gold hoop B. Two goats and two inverted lions; skirted. III

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22/74 Cagliari 19792, from Tharros. BL;EXV. Two goats and two uraei. III

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22/75 Cagliari 35112 (Gouin) BL;EXCR. Two goats and two uraei; skirted; winged disc above. V

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22/76 Tharros pl. 59c (BM ANE 133673), London no. 370. Budapest fig. 11; RSF 8 (1980) pl. 3.6 (Bisi); Hölbl, Sard no. 151. BH. Profile, walking; four uraei. III

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22/77 From Tharros. Hölbl, Sard no. 152. Four uraei.

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22/78 From Othoca. Hölbl, Sard no. 154. Four uraei.

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22/79 Kerkouan Museum. REPPAL 9 (1995) pl. 7.18. Two goats and two uraei. Bes is skirted, wearing hmhm crown; lion heads beside his head?; on an oval basis? III

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East

22/80 London no. 276, pl. 5, from Syria. Nunn no. 48. BL;EXZ. Two goats and two uraei; Bes wholly profile. II/III

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Other

22/81 Munich no. 218, pl. 24 (bought in Rome). RSF 8 (1980) pl. 4.5 (Bisi). GL;EXCR. Four uraei; Bes wholly profile.

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H. Bes in other animal settings

West

22/82 Carthage no. 544. Parrot, et al., fig. 330. BH. Frontal bust holding a goat upside down; papyri at each side. I

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22/83 Carthage no. 547. BH. Frontal head above which emerge two goat foreparts. I

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22/84 Kerkouan Museum. REPPAL 9 (1995) pl. 8.19 BH. Frontal bust holding an antelope upside down and two snakes.

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22/85 Cagliari 19794, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.69; Hölbl, Sard no. 159. BH. Large frontal head, horned, held in the arms of a frontal gorgon. I

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22/86 Cagliari 19793, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.68; Hölbl, Sard no. 157. BH. Bes rides a lion, frontal. I

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22/87 Cagliari 22943, from Tharros. BL. Profile walking Bes holds a goat by its horns. I

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I. Bes shoulders a lion

West

22/88 Ibiza no. 92 (Ibiza 3250). BH;EXCR. Frontal. III

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Other

22/89 Paris, Louvre A 1134. Delaporte II, pl. 104; Budapest fig. 12; RSF 8 (1980) pl. 3.2 (Bisi). BH;EXCR. Walking; holds boar inverted. I

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22/90 New York no. 16, pl. 4. RSF 8 (1980) pl. 3.1 (Bisi). BH;EXnb. Walking; holds boar inverted.

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J. Bes crosses a lion

Their bodies cross, Bes holding the lion by its tail and a hind leg. The scheme may derive from the animal-fight groups in which the lion crosses behind the body of the bull to bite its back. It is at any rate of eastern origin, not Greek. The type is discussed by E. Gubel, RSF 16 (1988) 151-155, suggesting eastern production and a date in the early 6th century. This is perhaps too early since examples do not need to precede Greek scarab production in the Phoenician manner.

West

22/91 Carthage no. 549. RSF 16 (1988) pl. 29b (Gubel). BL;EXCR. I

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East

22/92 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2784, pl. 19 (E 25938), from Byblos. RSF 16 (1988) pl. 29c (Gubel); Nunn no. 46+47. BL. III

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Other

22/93 Cambridge no. 17. RSF 16 (1988) pl. 29a (Gubel); Zazoff, pl. 21.8. BL;PB;EXCR.

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22/94 Amsterdam 7893. RSF 16 (1988) pl. 26b (Gubel). BL;EXCR. A papyrus beyond. III

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K. Winged Bes, various

The frontal examples approximate closely to Egyptian types; the others seem affected by Greek monsters.

West

22/95 Carthage no. 551. BL. Frontal four-winged Bes holding feathers (?), standing on nbw. III

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22/96 Cagliari 377, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.73; Hölbl, Sard no. 156. BH. Frontal upper part of four-winged Bes holding two dolphins. III

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22/97 Tharros pl. 59d (BM ANE 133400), London no. 367. Hölbl, Sard no. 153. BL;EXCR. Profile, walking, with four uraei. Flower between legs. I

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L. Bes-sphinx

The type is related more to the Egyptianizing seated, facing lions (38B) than to the sphinxes in this series. It is a popular subject in the east in the Persian period.

22/98 Carthage no. 552. BH. Frontal Bes forepart on a winged lion body. He holds a snake. III

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M. Bes fights a griffin

East

22/99 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2777, pl. 18 (E25943). BL;EXnb;PB. Bes fights a griffin, holding its neck and foreleg; winged disc above. III

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Other

22/100 Malibu, IR no. 110. BL;EXCR. Bes fights a griffin, holding its neck and foreleg. Coiled uraeus behind; disc-and-crescent above. III/VI

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22/101 Once Prussian Cabinet (Winckelmann no. 35); Tassie, no. 167. BL; exergue layered. Bes fights a small rearing griffin, holding a stone in a raised hand. Disc-and-crescent and winged disc above. III

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Other materials

Type A

West

22/X1 Carthage no. 650. Quillard, no. 62, pl. 7a. Cornelian in gold mount and hoop A twisted. BH. Facing head.

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22/X2 Carthage no. 686. 'Whitish limestone?'. Facing head.

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22/X3 From Carthage. Clay bulla. Cahiers de Byrsa 2 (1952) 47, no. 774. BH. Frontal. Horns?

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22/X4 From Carthage. Clay bulla. Ibid., 48, no. 775. BL. Frontal. Uraei at each side; winged disc above.

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22/X5 Karthago III, no. 78. Clay bulla. Frontal. Uraei at each side, and cartouches with feather crowns. Winged disc above.

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22/X6 From Utica. BullArch 1924, 150, fig. 4, in sarcophagus of male. Cornelian in gold mount and hoop A twisted. Facing head.

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East

22/X7 Paris, BN, de Luynes 239, from Tortosa. Babelon, fig. 64; GazArch 2 (1876) 147; Zazoff, pl. 21.9. Cornelian carinated on gold mount and silver hoop A. BH. Facing head; uraeus-horns.

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Type B

22/X8 From Kerkouan, 5th-century tombs. Atti II F-P (1991) 849, fig. 4b (Fantar). Cornelian. BL. Bust of Bes/satyr, chest frontal, holding a uraeus in one hand, two others above him. The Bes head is more like that of a satyr, without feathers or headdress.

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Type C

West

22/X9 Carthage no. 687. BL. 'Grey/yellow marble (?)'. BL. Frontal, between papyri.

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22/X10 Karthago III, no. 77. Clay bulla. Frontal

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East

22/X11 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2770, pl. 18. Cornelian scaraboid. EXCR; in gold mount on silver hoop with granules at edge A. Frontal.

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Other

22/X12 Munich no. 214, pl. 24. RSF 8 (1980) pl. 4.1 (Bisi). Grey chalcedony scaraboid. No border.

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22/X13 Köln, Kunstgew. Mus. (once Treskow). BH. Frontal upper body with hands before chest, profile legs, skirted; behind, a large triple-palmette Phoenician tree with flowers; two stars.

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22/X14 Paris, BN, de Luynes 237. Zazoff, pl. 21.5. Cornelian. BL; in gold mount and hoop A. Squatting, hands on knees, with long pointed ears; three rhomboids at either side (eyes?) and two vertical lines on the base; exergue with winged disc with tail (like Achaemenid).

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22/X15 Oxford III no. 86 (1913.736(4)). Deep blue-green faience. BH;EXnb. Frontal.

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Type D

West

22/X16 Carthage no. 651. Quillard, no. 57, pl. 6b. Cornelian in gold mount. BL;EXCR. Fights lion.

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22/X17 Carthage no. 652. Cornelian. BL;EXCR. Fights lion.

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22/X18 Karthago III, no. 66. Clay bulla.

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22/X19 Como, Mus.Civ., from Tharros. Black steatite. RSF 6 (1978) 38-40, pl. 5.1 (Pisano); 16 (1988) pl. 31a (Gubel); Hölbl, Sard no. 147bis. BL;EXnb; on gold hoop. Fights lion, its head turned away; winged disc above.

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East

22/X20 Munich no. 208, pl. 23, from Hypata (Greece). Green frit. BH. Fights lion, its body turned away.

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22/X21 Rhodes Mus., from Ialysos, gr. CCLIV.4 (late 6th cent.). Cornelian. In gold mount and hoop A.

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22/X22 New York, Met.Mus. Cesnola Cat. 417, fig., 4196, from Cyprus. Cornelian. BL;EXnb; in bronze ring. Winged disc above.

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22/X23 Byblos I, no. 2423, pl. 128. Steatite. Uraeus behind; disc-and-crescent; lion head turned away.

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Other

22/X24 Munich no. 217, pl. 24. AG pl. 15.16; RSF 8 (1980) pl. 4.5 (Bisi); Hölbl, Sard no. 145. Grey chalcedony. BH;EXCR. Fights lion; disc-and-crescent, star.

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22/X25 Amsterdam 7896. RSF 16 (1988) pl. 27a (Gubel). Brown steatite. BL;EXnb. Fights lion, animal head turned away; winged disc above.

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22/X26 London BM ANE 120988. Black steatite. See RSF 16 (1988) 156, n. 52 (Gubel).

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Type E

West

22/X27 Carthage no. 654. Quillard, no. 67, pl. 7b. Cornelian on gold hoop B. BL;EXCR. Holds two lions inverted; winged disc above.

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22/X28 From Carthage. Clay bulla. Cahiers de Byrsa 2 (1952) 47, no. 773.

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22/X29 Karthago III, no. 68. Clay bulla.

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East

22/X30 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2767, pl. 18, from Amrit. Cornelian scaraboid. BH; hatched ground line; in a gold mount on a silver hoop with a gold stud within A. Bes embraces the standing lions. A small Bes also standing on each shoulder.

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22/X31 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2768, pl. 18, from Tortosa. Stud.Phoen. 9 (1992) pl. 2.3a (Gubel). Chalcedony scaraboid. Holds two small lions upside down by their tails; over a tortoise; winged disc above.

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22/X32 Jerusalem IAA 74-586, from Ashkelon. CSAPI no. 8. Plain glass. BL;EXnb. Holds two lions inverted by tails; winged disc above. III

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Other

22/X33 New York market. Christies 4.6.99, no. 80. Amethyst. BL;EXO. Holds two small lions before him, heads averted, by their tails; unusual T-shaped headdress, not feathers.

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Type F

West

22/X34 Tharros pl. 52f (BM ANE 133574). Green-buff glazed faience. BL;EXCR, Holds two snakes. Winged disc above.

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22/X35 Carthage no. 655. Cornelian. BH;EXCR. Holds two boars inverted.

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22/X36 Karthago III, no. 71. Clay bulla. Two uraei.

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22/X37 Karthago III, no. 72. Clay bulla. Two snakes. Cf. nos. 73, 74.

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East

22/X38 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2769, pl. 18. Cornelian scaraboid. BL;EXCR; in gold mount on silver hoop A. Holds two snakes.

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Other

22/X39 Paris, BN, de Luynes 255. Zazoff, pl. 21.3. Cornelian. BH;PB;EXO. Holds two goats inverted. Two discs-and-crescent.

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22/X40 Paris, Louvre A 1133. Delaporte II, pl. 104. Cornelian. BL. Holds two goats by their horns, over a lion; winged disc above.

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Type G

West

22/X41 Carthage no. 653. Cornelian in gold mount. BH;EXCR. Holds two uraei, two boars inverted; winged disc above.

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22/X42 Karthago III, no. 65. Clay bulla. Two goats and two lions.

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22/X43 London, BM ANE 103300, from Byblos. Tassie, no. 34; Budapest fig. 10; RSF 8 (1980) pl. 3.5 (Bisi). Clear chalcedony, carinated. BL;EX oblique hatching. Holds two winged uraei, two lions inverted. Bes has horns.

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22/X44 Once Studniczka, from Cyprus. AG pl. 61.13. Chalcedony. Holds two goats, two lions.

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22/X45 Once Newton-Robinson, from Golgoi (Cyprus). Christies, London, 22.6.1909, pl. 1.13. Agate. With two uraei (?), two goats.

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Other

22/X46 Berlin no. 134, pl. 32 (F 100). Agate, carinated. BL;EXCR. Holds two goats, two inverted lions.

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Type H

West

22/X47 Karthago III, no. 69. Clay bulla. Facing bust holding an antelope upside down. Probably also ibid., no. 70. Cf. Carthage no. 544.

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22/X48 Karthago III, no. 76. Clay bulla. Riding a lion, frontal. Cf. Cagliari 19793.

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Other

22/X49 London no. 278, pl. 5. AG pl. 7.22. Cornelian. BH;EXCR. Fights rearing griffin.

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22/X50 Morrison no. 35.1. Cornelian. 'Bes carries a crane or ibis, uraeus at feet, a recumbent animal below.'

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22/X51 Morrison no. 36.1. Cornelian. 'Bes fights a bull.'

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Type I

22/X52 London no. 371, pl. 7, from Tharros (BM ANE 13603(?2)2); LRings no. 288. Budapest fig. 13; RSF 8 (1980) pl. 3.4 (Bisi); Hölbl, Sard no. 141. Cornelian. BH; gold mount with wavy wire sides and hoop A. Walks shouldering antelope, a dog runs beyond him. Bes as hunter.

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22/X53 Budapest no. 9, figs. 8-9 (1955.238). RSF 8 (1980) pl. 3.3 (Bisi). Agate. BL. Walks shouldering a deer. Incomplete animal in front.

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Type K

West

22/X54 Cagliari 9455 (Spano 7), from Tharros. Ebers, pl. F 25; Hölbl, Sard no. 155. Cornelian on gold hoop C. BH;EXCR. Frontal, four-winged, holds two snakes.

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22/X55 Karthago III, no. 75. Clay bulla. Four-winged, holding snakes, feather crown.

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East

22/X56 Munich no. 215, pl. 24, from Samos. RSF 8 (1980) pl. 4.2 (Bisi). Sardonyx scaraboid. BH. Four-winged.

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Other

22/X57 Strasbourg. AG pl. 61.10. BH. Winged Bes carries snake.

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Type L

22/X58 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2600, pl. 17, from Amrit. Cornelian. BL;EXCR; in gold mount and silver hoop A. Uraeus with double crown in front.

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22/X59 Malibu, Getty no. 101. Dark brown jasper. BL;EXCR. Bes sphinx wearing hmhm crown, beneath winged disc. In front 'a column surmounted by a palm capital'; or a blank, block cartouche with feather finial?

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Type M

22/X60 London no. 277, pl. 5, from Cyprus? Chalcedony. BH;EXnb. The 'Bes' has an undefined head, without headdress; the griffin's head is averted; it is seized by its forepaws.

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22/X61 Feoli Coll. Lajard, pl. 69.10. Agate. BH. Bes fights a rearing griffin, its head averted.

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