28. Warriors

The single warrior is basically a Greek subject though not very common in Greek glyptic. In our series most are naked, with spear and shield, rarely sword. There are some archers, especially some testing their arrows, which is decidedly Greek in inspiration and appears on Greek scarabs, and a slinger; also Greek are the arming warrior and others in more ambitious poses or more elaborately detailed (28/2). The shields often show a baldric, so not hoplitic, and some of the dress is apparently Scythian (archers) or more readily matched in Cyprus than in Greece. The dorydrepanon is unexpected (28/39). The types where the figure holds a club are very common and related in some way to Greek Herakles figures without necessarily representing the Greek hero.

A. Walking, alone

None are helmeted. All have shield and spear.

West

28/1 Ibiza no. 168 (Madrid 37007). BL. IV

Gem image

28/2 Tharros pl. 62g (BM ANE 127214). AG pl. 7.48; London no. 405, pl.7; Zazoff, pl. 22.4. BH. Warrior in helmet, elaborate corselet, greaves, holds spear and shield with profile satyr head as device, on baldric. I

Gem image

28/3 Cagliari 19845, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.52. BH;PB; on a gold hoop A. Chlamys. III

Gem image

28/4 From Caralis, Taramelli, 161-2, fig. 77. BH. Corselet and skirt.

Drawing of gem

28/5 Biggio pl. 19.3, from Sulcis. BH;PB;EXnb. Chlamys.

Gem image

28/6 Monte Sirai I, pl. 52.3, II, fig. 4; Saggi Fenici I, pl. 7.11 (62/156) (Bondi); Studia Punica 10 (1996) fig. 8.11 (Moscati). BH. Naked, spear lowered; flower behind.

No image available

28/7 From Utica, tomb 4. BullArch 1924, 145, fig. 2. BH. Corselet and skirt.

No image available

28/8 Kerkouan Museum. REPPAL 9 (1995) pl. 4.34. BH. II

No image available


East

28/9 Paris, Louvre AO 17389, from Ras Shamra (with pottery and coins of just after 400 BC). R.A. Stucky, Ras Shamra.Leukos Limen (1983) pl. 27.1; Nunn no. 68. BL. Spear lowered. Gouged. IV

No image available

28/10 'From Syria/Lebanon'. Private Coll. BH. Holding sword (?) in lowered hand.

No image available


Other

28/11 Switzerland, private (W/B no. 700). BH. Shield on baldric. III

No image available

28/11A Malibu, Getty no. 105. BH. III

Gem image


B. Kneeling/running, alone

A few seem static but several look round, as if pursued. Most are naked and helmetless, with spear and shield (side-on).

West

28/12 Cadiz, private, from Cadiz. Lopez de la Orden, no. 15. BL;EXO.

No image available

28/13 Barcelona (269), from Ampurias. With helmet and chlamys.

No image available

28/14 Ibiza no. 169 (Ibiza 3815). BH. IV

Gem image

28/15 Ibiza no. 170 (Ibiza 3208). BH. Frontal shield. IV

Gem image

28/16 Ibiza no. 171 (Madrid 36996). BH;PB. Chlamys. I

Gem image

28/17 Ibiza no. 172 (Madrid 36995). BH;PB. Chlamys, a vine above. I

Gem image

28/18 Ibiza no. 173 (Ibiza 3216). BH;PB. IV

Gem image

28/19 Ibiza no. 174 (Ibiza 3617). BL. IV

Gem image

28/20 Ibiza no. 175 (Barcelona 9349). BH;PB. Baldric. III

Gem image

28/21 Ibiza no. 176 (Barcelona 9357). BH. Looks back. III

Gem image

28/22 Ibiza no. 177 (Ibiza 4040). BH. Looks back, baldric. I

Gem image

28/23 Ibiza no. 178 (Barcelona 9382). BH. Looks back, baldric. I

Gem image

28/24 Ibiza 3791 (missing). Mem.Junta 58 (1923) pl. 8B1; Fernandez/Padro, no. 48. BH.

No image available

28/25 Ibiza 3130 (missing). Mem.Junta 6 (1918) pl. 2A; Fernandez/Padro, no. 70. BH.

No image available

28/26 Tharros pl. 62f (BM ANE 133239). BH. Front of figure only; baldric. III

Gem image (part)

28/27 Tharros pl. 62e (BM ANE 133311). BH. Front of figure only. III

Gem image (part)

28/28 Cagliari 19863, from Tharros. Pale; BL. Chlamys(?). IV

Gem image

28/29 Cagliari 9478 (Spano 7), from Tharros. AG pl. 15.50. BH; PB. Looks round; baldric shown. III

Gem image

28/30 Cagliari 19852, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.43. BH. Looks round. III

Gem image

28/31 Cagliari 9546 (Spano 45), from Tharros. BL. Looks round. III/IV

Gem image

28/32 Cagliari 9533 (Spano 88), from Tharros. Broken; BH. Looks round.

No image available

28/33 Cagliari 8, from Tharros. BL. Looks round; helmet, shield frontal.

No image available

28/34 Cagliari 19846, from Tharros. BH. With helmet, corselet, frontal shield and sword. III

Gem image

28/35 Cagliari 19848, from Tharros. BH; on gold hoop B. AG pl. 15.47. With chlamys. I

Gem image

28/36 Cagliari 35136 (once Gouin). BH. With helmet. III

Gem image (major fragment)

28/37 Cagliari 9492 (Spano 80), from Tharros. BH. With chlamys. III

Gem image

28/38 Cagliari 19850, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.30. BH. III

Gem image

28/39 Cagliari 9505 (Spano 58), from Tharros. BH. With helmet, chlamys and dorydrepanon. III

Gem image

28/40 Cagliari 372, from Tharros. Anecd pl. 26.B27. BH. IV

Gem image

28/41 Cagliari 19849, from Tharros. BH. With chlamys. IV

Gem image

28/42 Cagliari 373, from Tharros. Anecd pl. 26.B26. BL. IV

Gem image

28/43 Cagliari 352, from Tharros. BL. I

Gem image

28/44 Cagliari. AG pl. 15.49. BH. With corselet and frontal shield with cross device. III

No image available

28/45 From Cagliari (Coll. Timon). Ebers, pl. H 70. BH.

Gem image

28/46 Cagliari, from Tharros. RSF 24 Suppl. (1996) pl. 1.5, 96, fig. 2b (Acquaro). BH. With spear.

No image available

28/47 Biggio pl. 20.4, from Sulcis. BH;PB. With helmet and chlamys; profile relief satyr head on shield; cf. 28/2.

Gem image

28/48 From Villaricos. Astruc, pl. 32.32. BH.

No image available

28/49 Switzerland, private, from Motya (W/B no. 698). BL. Looks round. IV

No image available

28/50 Carthage no. 626. BH. I

Gem image

28/51 Carthage no. 627. BH. With helmet. III

Gem image

28/52 Carthage no. 628. BL. IV

No image available

28/53 Carthage no. 629. BH. IV

No image available

28/55 Carthage no. 631. BH. With helmet; shield frontal. IV

Gem image

28/56 Carthage no. 632. BH. Looks round. IV

No image available

28/57 Carthage no. 633. BH. Looks round. III

Gem image

28/58 Carthage no. 634. BH. Looks round; shield frontal. II/III

Gem image

28/59 Carthage no. 635. BH. Looks round; with helmet; shield frontal. III

Gem image

28/60 Carthage no. 637. BH. Looks round. III

Gem image

28/61 Carthage no. 638. BL. IV

No image available

28/62 New York, Rosen 200, from Tunisia. BL. Looks round. IV

Gem image

28/63 Rome 107986. RPA 30/31 (1957/9) 226, fig. 6. BH.

No image available

28/64 Rome 126344. RPA 30/31 (1957/9) 226, fig. 7. BL.

No image available


Other

28/65 Sternberg, Aukt. 24 (1990) no. 407. BH. Dot circle behind (wreath?).

No image available

28/66 Switzerland, private (W/B no. 697). BH. III

No image available

28/67 Switzerland, private (W/B no. 699). BH. III

No image available

28/68 London, BM ANE 1954.3-2.1. BH;PB.

No image available

28/69 London no. 323, pl. 6. AG pl. 7.46. BH. With helmet and chlamys. III

No image available

28/70 Copenhagen, NM. BH. Kneeling properly, with helmet. III

Gem image

C. Bowman tests arrow

The motif is familiar in Greek archaic glyptic: AGGems nos. 346, 347. The figure kneels.

West

28/71 Ibiza no. 184. Sternberg, Aukt. 24 (1990) no. 408. BH;PB. Bow at back. III

No image available

28/72 Cagliari 19860, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.22. BL. IV

Gem image

28/73 Cagliari 35111 (once Gouin). BH. Bow over shoulder. III

Gem image

28/74 Carthage no. 611. BH. With chlamys; bow over forearm. IV

Gem image

28/74A Carthage no. 630. BH. IV

Gem image

28/75 Kerkouan Museum. REPPAL 9 (1995) pl. 13.31. BH.

No image available


East

28/76 Oxford III, no. 480 (1911.254), from north of Ras el-Ain. III

Gem image


Other

28/77 London no. 324. AG pl. 7.49. BH. III

Gem image


D. Warrior or bowman also holding lowered club

The club is not a normal Greek weapon,but these figures are not Herakles although some poses in this and the following section must be inspired by Heraklean motifs. Perhaps the club remained a significant part of warrior equipment in the Phoenician world, but the nakedness is Greek. Most are kneeling.

West

28/78 Ibiza no. 186 (Madrid 37005). BH;PB. Holding bow. III

Gem image

28/79 Ibiza no. 187 (Moreno 4). BH;EXnb. Holding bow. I

Gem image

28/80 Ibiza no. 188 (Ibiza 6153+). BH. Fragment.

Gem image (fragment)

28/81 Ibiza no. 189 (Boston 27.765, LHG no. 13bis, pl. 2). BH. Standing, with bow. III

Gem image

28/82 Ibiza no. 191 (Barcelona 9290). BH.EXnb. Standing, with chlamys and bow. II/IV

Gem image

28/83 Tharros pl. 63a (BM ANE 133310), London no. 401, pl. 7. BH. Standing, holds bow. III

Gem image

28/84 Tharros pl. 63c (BM ANE 133365). Fragment.

Gem image (fragment)

28/85 Cagliari 9503 (Spano 69), from Tharros. OrAnt 23 (1984) pl. 8.4 (Acquaro). BL. Standing, holding bow; legs crossed, to adjust sandal(?). IV

Gem image

28/86 Cagliari 22944. Two halves of different scarabs. BH. One part - rear of warrior with lowered club; the other - running with frontal shield and spear. III

Gem image

28/87 Cagliari 19851, from Tharros. BH. With shield. IV

Gem image

28/88 Cagliari 9520 (Spano 97), from Tharros. BH. Holds bow. III

Gem image

28/89 Cagliari 9536 (Spano 96), from Tharros. BH. Holds bow. I

Gem image

28/90 Cagliari 19855, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.25. BH. Holds bow and arrow. I

Gem image

28/91 Cagliari 19856, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.23. BH. Holds bow. I/III

Gem image

28/92 Cagliari. AG pl. 15.27. BH. Holds bow. I

No image available

28/93 Carthage no. 636. BL; on silver hoop B. Holds bow. III

No image available

28/94 Carthage no. 609. BH. Standing, holds bow. I

No image available


East

28/95 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2808, pl. 19, from Tyre. BH. Holds bow. I

Gem image


Other

28/96 New York, Rosen 214. BH. Holds bow. I

Gem image


E. Bowman or warrior holds raised club. See under C.

West

28/97 Cagliari 9524 (Spano 77), from Tharros. AG pl. 15.29. BH. With shield. III

Gem image

View larger image

28/98 Cagliari 19862, from Tharros. BH. IV

Gem image

View larger image

28/99 Cagliari 19859, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.28. BH; on silver hoop C. With bow, club in air. III

Gem image

View larger image

28/100 Penco Coll., from Tharros. BAS 5, 123-124. With bow.

No image available

28/101 Cagliari, from Caralis. Taramelli, 161, fig. 76. BH. With spear and frontal shield.

Drawing of gem

View larger image


East

28/102 Oxford III, no. 559, pl. 18 (1891.638), from Cyprus. Reyes, no. 124. BL. Short dress; with quiver. Local hellenizing style.

Gem image

View larger image

28/103 Jerusalem IAA 32.497, from Atlit. AJBA 1 (1968) 52, pl. 1.5 (Culican); QDAP 2 (1933) no. 497; CSAPI no. 5. BH. With quiver. I

Gem image & drawing

View larger image


Other

28/104 Philadelphia E. 13091. Antike Welt 31.6 (2000) 668, fig. 9. BH;PB. With bow. IV

Gem image

View larger image

28/105 Basel (once von Bissing Coll.). Hornung/Stehelin, pl. 104.922. BL;EXCR.

No image available


F. Slinger

The figures are naked, kneeling with one foot extended. The pose is that adopted for some archers in Greek glyptic: AGGems nos. 247, 336.

West

28/106 Cadiz Mus., from Cadiz. Madrider Mitteilungen 22 (1981) pl. 21a-c; Lopez de la Oren, no. 22. BH;PB. Facing a profile head of a satyr.

No image available

28/107 Cagliari 9529 (Spano 96), from Tharros. AG pl. 15.76. BH. Facing a small bird. I

No image available


Other

28/108 Geneva I, no. 153, pl. 62. Zazoff, pl. 21.10. BH; on gold hoop B. With chlamys. I

Gem image

View larger image


G. Other single warriors, various poses

West

28/109 Ibiza no. 163. BH. A warrior in helmet puts on a greave. For the subject see AGGems no 323. I

Gem image

View larger image

28/110 Ibiza no. 164 (Madrid 37000). BH;PB. A warrior in corselet puts on a greave; helmet below, spear behind. III

Gem image

View larger image

28/111 Ibiza no. 165 (Madrid 37001). BH. A warrior in helmet and corselet puts on a greave; shield and spear behind. III

Gem image

View larger image

28/112 Ibiza no. 166 (Madrid 36997). Fest.Hausmann (1982) pl. 66.11 (Boardman). BH. A kneeling warrior with helmet, corselet, chlamys?, two spears and frontal shield holds up a small round object (offering or die?) over a roughly sketched rectangle (table or altar?). III

Gem image
View larger image

28/113 Ibiza no. 179 (Boston 27.660, LHG no. 13. BH. Kneeling youth with bow over arm, holding a cock. I

Gem image

View larger image

28/114 Ibiza no. 180. BH. Kneeling youth with quiver draws a bow. III

No image available

28/115 Ibiza no. 181. BH. As the last. III

No image available

28/116 Ibiza no. 182 (Barcelona 9283). BH. Kneeling youth stringing a bow. IV

Gem image

View larger image

28/117 Ibiza no. 183 (Madrid 37021). BH. Standing warrior with shield at back strings a bow. IV

Gem image

View larger image

28/118 Ibiza no. 167 (Madrid 37006). BH. Warrior with spear seated on rock. IV

Gem image

View larger image

28/119 Cagliari 351, from Tharros. AG pl. 16.78. BH. Standing, with club held on ground, and holding a crooked stick (?). III

Gem image

View larger image

28/120 Cagliari 19858, from Tharros. BH. Kneeling, with chlamys and bow. I

Gem image

View larger image

28/121 Cagliari 349, from Tharros. BH. Kneeling, drawing bow. IV

No image available

28/122 Cagliari 19879, from Tharros. BH. Kneeling youth holds two clubs (?). IV

Gem image

View larger image

28/123 Cagliari 358, from Tharros. BL. Kneeling youth holds two clubs (?). IV

Gem image

View larger image

28/124 London no. 406, pl. 7, from Tharros. AG pl. 8.48. BH;PB; on a gold hoop B. Leaping Scythian bowman looking round and drawing his bow; full sleeved and trousered dress, with quiver. I

Gem image

View larger image

28/125 Spano Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 81. BH. Scythian kneeling, in full dress with quiver, drawing bow.

Drawing of gem

View larger image

28/126 Kerkouan Museum. REPPAL 9 (1995) pl. 14.33. BH. A naked man kneels drawing a bow, with bowcase. III

No image available


Other

28/127 Paris, BN 1082bis (E278). AG pl. 9.24; GGFR pl. 420. BH;PB; on a gold hoop B. Youth kneeling with leg extended behind him, holding shield and spear; bowcase hangs above; wreath below. A stiff version of the Greek warriors of AGGems nos. 264-5? I

Gem image
View larger image

8/128 Paris, BN, Chandon de Briailles. BH;PB. BH. Youth in helmet puts on a greave. Cf. AGGems no. 323, pl. 22. I

Gem image

View larger image

28/129 Jerusalem, Borowski Coll. Sternberg, Aukt. 24 (1990) no. 411. BH. Bearded warrior with shield and scabbard, corselet and greaves, no helmet, raises an arm to throw a stone.

Gem image

View larger image

28/130 Oxford. BH; in gold mount with cable wire sides. Naked, walking with shouldered club. IV

Gem image (front)Gem image (side)Gem image (back)

View larger images


H. Groups of warriors

Compare the oriental treatment of the fighting groups, 18.

West

28/131 Ibiza no. 161. BH;EXnb. A warrior in profile, fully dressed, with Corinthian helmet, corselet, shield and spear, a dog beside him; before him a frontal bearded horseman wearing a himation, hand raised to the warrior. I

Gem image

View larger image

28/132 Ibiza no. 162. BH. A warrior strikes down with a sword a small naked figure, holding his hair. III

No image available

28/133 Cagliari 9499 (Spano 30), from Tharros. AG pl. 15.48. BH;EXO. Four warriors with spears. II/III

Gem image

View larger image

28/134 Vernon Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 109. BH. A warrior strikes down another with a sword; both with helmet and shield.

Drawing of gem

View larger image


Other

28/135 London, BM ANE 1954.3-2.1. 'Warriors advancing'.

No image available

28/136 Malibu. IR no. 116. Dressed warrior strikes down with sword a cowering old man, holding his hair. Death of Priam ? A trident mark over the victim. III

Gem image

View larger image


Other materials

Type A

West

28/X1 Cadiz Mus., from Cadiz. Lopez de la Orden, no. 16. Cornelian. BH;EXO; in gold mount.

No image available

28/X2 Cadiz Mus., from Cadiz. Lopez de la Orden, no. 17. Cornelian. BH. Bearded, with spear and shield on baldric with relief satyr head device.

No image available

28/X3 Carthage no. 707. Rock crystal. BH. With helmet, shield and spear.

Gem image

View larger image


East

28/X4 From Kamid el-Loz. Kamid el-Loz XV (1996) no. 71. Blue glass scaraboid.

No image available


Type B

West

28/X5 Ibiza no. 226 (Ibiza 2893). Cornelian. BH; in gold hoop B. Looking round.

Gem image

View larger image

28/X6 Ibiza no. 238 (Madrid 37556). Green glass. BL

No image available

28/X7 Carthage no. 706. Stone scaraboid. BH. Frontal shield.

Gem image

View larger image

28/X8 Carthage no. 708, from Utica. Quillard, no. 71, pl. 7b. Chalcedony. BH;EXO; in gold mount and hoop C. With sword and frontal shield.

Gem image

View larger image

28/X9 Karthago II, no. 710. Clay bulla. BH. Looks round.

No image available

28/X10 From Utica. BullArch 1926, 226, T.6. Cornelian. On twisted gold hoop A.

No image available

28/X11 Tharros pl. 65a (BM ANE 133172). Chalcedony. BL.

Gem image

View larger image


East

28/X12 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2819, pl. 19. Cornelian. BH; in a silver mount. Looking back, with helmet, corselet, greaves, shield and spear.

Gem image

View larger image

28/X13 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2820, pl. 19. Cornelian. In a silver mount. Looking back, with helmet, shield and spear.

Gem image

View larger image

28/X14 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2821, pl. 19. Blue glass scaraboid.

Gem image

View larger image


Other

28/X15 Sternberg, Aukt. 27 (1994) no. 683. Clear glass scaraboid. BL.

No image available


Type C

28/X16 Jerusalem IAA 32.629, from Atlit. QDAP 2 (1933) no. 629; CSAPI no. 10. Cornelian. BH; on silver hoop B. Naked youth with arms held as for arrow, but none shown. III

Gem image & drawing

View larger image


Type E

28/X17 Karthago II, no. 569. Clay bulla. BH; in mount.

No image available

28/X18 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2807, pl. 19. Cornelian. BL. With bow.

Gem image

View larger image

28/X19 London no. 438, pl. 8. Zazoff, pl. 22.8. Cornelian. BL. With quiver.

No image available


Type G

West

28/X20 Ibiza no. 229 (Ibiza 2889). Grey chalcedony. BH;EXO. Kneeling warrior with Corinthian helmet and shield, leaning on his spear.

Gem image

View larger image

28/X21 Busacchi Coll. Cornelian. BH. Scythian draws bow raised in air; winged disc above (?).

No image available

28/X22 Utica, from Utica. Karthago 2 (1951) 35, fig. 10; A. Lézine, Utique (1970) fig. 48. Chalcedony. BH;EXnb. Kneeling warrior wearing corselet and helmet with feathers, quiver, draws a bow.

No image available

28/X23 Tunis, from Carthage. Red jasper? BH; in gold ring and plain mount. Kneeling warrior wearing corselet and sword, spear raised, shield held forward, side-on.

Gem image

View larger image

28/X24 Once Munich, Arndt A 1287, from Capranica (S. Etruria). Fest.Himmelmann pl. 33.3 (Boardman). Cornelian. BH. As the last; small kneeling goat in front; star behind; winged disc above with falcon at centre.

Gem image

View larger image


Other

28/X25 Geneva I, no. 154, pl. 62. Clear glass. BH. Scythian draws bow, legs crossed; quiver at waist; 'owl' on tendril in front; flower behind.

No image available

28/X26 London market, Christie's 13.7.1983, no. 160. Mottled jasper. In elaborate gold mount with net mesh over scarab back. Warrior and dog (indistinct).

Gem image

View larger image


Type H

28/X27 Cagliari 19883, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.77. Clear agate. BH; on a gold mount C. Warrior stands with helmet and spear, shield behind him; before him a boy holding jug and cup.

Gem image

View larger image

28/X28 Once Vannutelli, from Greece. AG pl. 9.16. 'Black agate'. BH;PB. Replica of IR no. 116, with the victim wearing a pointed cap (easterner?).

No image available

28/X29 Unknown. Replica of the last, with inverted T behind the warrior.

No image available