32. Herakles

A. Head wearing lionskin

West

32/1 Rome, Mus. Naz. 10800 (Castellani). RPA 30/31 (1957/9) 226, fig. 3. 'Black'. BL. Uncertain if of the series.

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B. Kneeling, wearing lionskin

West

32/2 Ibiza no. 190 (Madrid 36999). RSF 18 (1990) pl. 4.2 (Acquaro); Boardman, Fest.Hausmann pl. 66.3. BL;PB. Wears lion head, corselet with decorated upper part and lappets, dress on thighs. Drawing bow. Cf. Pauvert no. 79. III

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32/3 Cagliari 19847, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.24; Bartolini, Sulcis pl. 65.4; RSF 18 (1990) pl. 4.4 (Acquaro); Tharros 103, fig. 7. BL;PB;EXCR. Lionskin wrapped round body, as Greek late archaic. Elbows out, drawing his sword. Was sceptre in front. I

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32/4 Tharros pl. 63.d (BM ANE 133402), London no. 395. AG pl. 7.56; Boardman, GO fig. 255a; RSF 18 (1990) pl. 4.3 (Acquaro); Hölbl, Sard no. 246. BL;PB;EXCR. As the last, including the sceptre, and with a blank cartouche behind. I

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Other

32/5 Paris, BN, Pauvert no. 79, pl. 6. Cut scarab (?). Wears lion head, corselet with collar (?) and lappets (cf. the warrior, Tharros pl. 62g), thighs covered with guard or dress, greaves? Drawing bow. Cf. Ibiza no. 190. III

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C. Walking, with lionskin, raised club, bow

The skin is usually knotted across the body with one or both paws hanging free. Exceptionally, the lion head hangs at his back. Most seem youthful.

West

32/6 Ibiza no. 192 (Ibiza 4249). BH;PB. III

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32/7 Cagliari 19857, from Tharros. OrAnt 23 (1984) pl. 8.3 (Acquaro). BH. III/IV

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32/8 Cagliari 19854, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.31. BH. III/IV

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32/9 S. Carta Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 84. D. BH. Lion head at back.

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32/10 Tharros pl. 63e (BM ANE 133319), London no. 394, pl. 7; LRings no. 291. BH; on gold hoop B. Lion head at back. III

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East

32/11 Oxford III, no. 17, from Al Mina. Nunn no. 67. BH; half missing. I

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32/12 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2780, pl. 18 (E25928), from Amrit. III

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32/13 Paris, Louvre A 1136 (AO 2319). Delaporte II pl. 104. BH. III

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Other

32/14 Baltimore, WAG 42.158 (Newton Robinson 14?) BH;PB. I

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32/15 Geneva I, no. 160, pl. 65. BL.

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32/16 New York, ANS (Newell). BH. Lion head at back.

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32/17 New York, Rosen 123. BH. Lion head at back. III

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D. Club raised, holds inverted lion

Most, logically if Herakles, avoid the lionskin (clearly not on some); and all figure vertically behind the hero the figure of a running animal (dog) or some other, possibly animal, motif. Most of the heroes are youthful. The scheme is an eastern one deriving from that for the master of animals, and not uncommon with Bes. It was not generally adopted in Greece for Herakles and the lion, except in glyptic, where the motif was probably more directly derived from the east (AGGems nos. 297-8).

West

32/18 Ibiza no. 194 (unknown whereabouts). BH. Wears lionskin. A dog behind. III

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32/19 Ibiza no. 195 (unknown whereabouts). BL. A dog behind. IV

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32/20 Ibiza no. 196 (Barcelona 9354). BH. IV

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32/21 Pres. Ena Coll, from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 83. BH. A letter (?) behind.

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32/22 Cagliari 19803. BH. A crude flower or animal vertically behind. IV

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32/23 Tharros pl. 63b (BM ANE 133326). BH;EXnb. Fragment.

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32/24 Carthage no. 614. BH. Bearded. A dog behind. III

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East

32/25 Oxford III, no. 478 (1889.391), from Amrit. Nunn no. 58. Short ridge on tail;BL. Lionskin hanging from arm. Star above. III

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32/26 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq (E 25910). BH;EXO. Animal or arm of lionskin hangs behind.

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32/27 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no.2781=2782, pl. 18 ('faience' sic)? (E 25913). BL;EXCR. See the last. The curved mark behind is not intelligible but probably is suggested by an animal figure as on others. IV

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32/28 Private, from 'Daherieh'. Palestine in the Bronze and Iron Ages (Papers...O. Tufnell, 1985) 209, no. 17. BH.

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32/29 Jerusalem IAA 32.496, from Atlit. QDAP 2 (1933) no. 496; AJBA 1 (1968) 52, pl. 1.4 (Culican); RSF 8 (1980) pl. 5.5 (Bisi); CSAPI no. 4. BL. A dog behind. III

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32/30 Jerusalem IAA 32.687, from Atlit. QDAP 2 (1933) no. 687; CSAPI no. 15. BH;EXO. A feather behind. IV

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32/31 Jerusalem IAA 32.705, from Atlit. QDAP 2 (1933) no. 705; CSAPI no. 16. BH. A dog behind. V

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Other

32/32 New York no. 22 (10.130.729). RSF 8 (1980) pl. 5.3 (Bisi). BH;EXO. I

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32/33 Geneva III, no. 123. BH;EXO.

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32/34 New York, Rosen 47. BH. A dog vertically behind; star above. Close to Ibiza no. 195. IV

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E. Standing fight with the lion

The scheme was oriental but adopted in Greek art for Herakles at an early date and it is the archaic Greek wrestling type that appears here.

West

32/35 Ibiza no. 197 (Barcelona 9361). BH. The lion's head turned away. Herakles with raised club and one leg raised against the lion (which does not claw back). I

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32/36 Ibiza no. 198 (Barcelona 9348). BL;EXCR. Bearded Herakles; the lion's head turned away; star above. I

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32/37 Ibiza no. 199 (now Jerusalem, Borowski College). Sternberg, Aukt. 24 (1990) no. 410. BL;PB. The lion's head tucked into Herakles' chest, clawing at him with a hind leg. I

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32/38 Cagliari 19887, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.75. BH; on gold hoop B. The lion's head tucked into Herakles' chest. A club behind. I

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32/39 Cagliari. AG pl. 15.74. BH. They face each other. III

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32/40 N. Mura of Oristano, from Tharros. BAS 4, 97, pl. 2.28. BL;EXCR. The lion faces away. A pillar or club behind.

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F. Other lion fights

West

32/42 Ibiza no. 193 (Barcelona 9353), BH. Kneeling man with raised spear (?) before a standing lion, its head turned away. Not obviously Heraklean. II/III

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32/43 Ibiza no. 200 (Madrid 37004). Fest.Hausmann pl. 66.1. BH;PB. A kneeling youth hoists a live lion onto his shoulders, its forepaws forward. This resembles the lion-throwing group adopted for some Athenian vase scenes in the later 6th century, and for occasional gems thereafter. See LIMC V (1990) 25. I

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32/44 From Monte Luna. OrAnt 21 (1982) pl. 7a (Acquaro); RSF 11 (1983) pl. 41.2 (Costa). BH; on silver hoop B. As the last.

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32/45 Malibu, from Sicily? IR no. 115. BH;PB;EXCR. Kneeling, knees together, grasping the lowered head of the lion in both arms. The lion claws at him with a hind leg. Bud below. I

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G. Fights a snake

Herakles fighting a single snake is a rare subject, possibly not to be confused with his fight with the multi-bodied Hydra; see LIMC V, 119-120.

West

32/46 Cagliari 35114 (Coll. Gouin). BH; on gold hoop B. Holds club, and snake in other hand, looking away. Behind him a bud (or smaller snake?) at the border. III

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32/47 Carthage no. 615. Fest.Hausmann pl. 66.4. Wears lionskin with lion head hanging behind, club raised against snake held in hand, standing on its tail. III

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32/48 From Utica. BullArch 1924, 146. 'Heracles raises his club against the hydra'.

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East

32/49 Müller Coll., 'from Sidon'. Naked, with raised club, looking back at a snake held in his hand. Before him vertically, a running dog. I

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Other materials

Type B

32/X1 Geneva I, no. 149 (20254), pl. 61, from Egypt. RSF 18 (1990) pl. 4.1 (Acquaro). Cornelian, carinated. BH;EXCR. Kneels with skin, bow, arrows.

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Type C

32/X2 Jerusalem IAA 32.552, from Atlit. QDAP 2 (1933) no. 552; AJBA 1 (1968) pl. 1.9 (Culican); CSAPI no. 8. Cornelian. BL. Walking with lionskin, bow, raised club. Aramaic inscription. III

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32/X3 Basel market. MM 22, no. 197, pl. 67, from Apamea. Grey chalcedony. BH. Walking with lionskin, bow, arrows, and lowered club; winged disc above.

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32/X4 Oxford III, no. 147 (1925.133). Pale brown chalcedony scaraboid with conoid back (Babylonian type).

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Type D

East

32/X5 Oxford III, no. 479 (1889.394), from Syrian coast. Blue glass scaraboid. A dog behind.

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Other

32/X6 Fribourg, Univ. H. Keel-Leu, Vorderas.Stempelsiegel (1991) no. 108. Rock crystal. A dog behind.

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32/X7 New York no. 31, pl. 5 (25.78.94). AG pl. 7.54; RSF 8 (1980) pl. 5.4 (Bisi). Cornelian. BH. A dog behind.

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32/X8 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2783, pl. 18. Cornelian scaraboid. In a silver mount.

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32/X9 Paris, BN, de Luynes 216. Silver bezel for a swivel mount.

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32/X10 Sternberg, Aukt. 25 (1991) no. 673; Syria 76 (1999) 263, fig. 38. Black serpentine. BH. A dog behind.

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Type E

32/X11 Karthago III, no. 67. Clay bulla. (Not Bes.)

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32/X12 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2806, pl. 19. Cornelian scaraboid. BH. Beardless, raised club.

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32/X13 New York, Rosen 10. Milky agate. BL;EXnb. One foot on the rump of the lion which moves away, head turned and forepaw raised. Herakles with scabbard, bow and arrows, raised club.

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Type F

32/X14 Carthage no. 675. Quillard, no. 58, pl. 6b. Cornelian, in gold mount. BH. Wrestles lion on ground.

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Other

32/X15 Boston 98.729. AG pl. 6.58. Cornelian. Beaded border;EXnb. With lionskin, raised club, bow and arrows, attacks the small supplicating figure of a naked man.

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32/X16 Péronne, Danicourt Coll. RA 1971, 197, fig. 4 (Boardman). Mottled quartz. BH. As the last but the victim is a warrior with helmet, shield and spear.

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