IV Miscellaneous subjects

36. Human heads

The few heads with helmet or petasos are derived directly from Greek glyptic, where, however, the head alone, bearded or not, is otherwise comparatively rare. There are many of plain heads in our series and with some it is clear that a negro head is intended, but on others this is not certain. The negro head is more common in the half-round for a seal back in Egypt and the Levant (and cf. AGGems no. 143, p. 55, profile, scarab back). For this motif a rare Greek gem subject has been adjusted to display some eastern features, but few are in good Greek style although the occasional three-quarter face is attempted.

A. Heads with helmet or petasos; profile

The motif appears on Greek scarabs (AGGems index, s.v. Warrior), the helmet Corinthian, worn on the top of the head, very close to the type of 36/2, which has, however, what appears to be a small ram's head at the neck - not a combined type but possibly a reference to the common cheekpiece decoration. There are two examples of youths wearing a petasos, possibly a Hermes; compare the upper part of a ram-bearer, AG pl. 15.15, which might belong here.

West

36/1 Ibiza no. 111 (Madrid 37014). BH. Petasos. Hermes? IV

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36/2 Cagliari 9538 (Spano 53). AG pl. 15.79. BH. Helmet; ram's head at neck. I

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36/3 Tharros pl. 60c (BM ANE 133323), London no. 392. BH; PB. Helmet, beardless; long hair. I

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36/4 Munich no. 224, pl. 24 (A 1278), from Sardinia. BH. Petasos. Hermes? I

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36/5 Kerkouan Museum REPPAL 9 (1995) pl. 12.28. BH. Helmet, beardless; long hair. I

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East

36/6 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2822, pl. 17, from Tyre; AGGems no. 232; Nunn no. 189. BH. Helmet, bearded head. I

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B. Bearded heads; profile

The types, where detailed, are Greek, but there is a number with oriental beards and caps. Most have a straight neckline like a plain collar.

West

36/7 Ibiza no. 103 (Madrid 36992). BH. Patterned collar. I

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36/8 Ibiza no. 107 (Barcelona 9365). BH. IV

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36/9 Ibiza no. 108 (Barcelona 9373). BH. Heavily cross-hatched (cf. Tharros pl. 60g); a Levantine head type as seen on some head-seals from Cyprus (Amathus, Études Chypriotes XIII (1991) 162, pl. 5; Reyes, 34-36). IV/V

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36/10 Cagliari 19833, from Tharros, BL. Oriental. Wearing broad-brimmed hat (not a petasos). III

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36/11 Cagliari 19867, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.81. BH; on gold hoop C. Oriental. III

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36/12 Cagliari, Chessa Coll. AG pl. 15.82; Ebers, G 45. BH. Oriental. Disc(-and-crescent?) on cap, like an eye, or like a bird-head cap? III

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36/13 Carthage no. 590. BH. III

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36/14 Carthage no. 591. BH. III

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Other

36/15 Switzerland, private (W/B no. 701). Cornelian. BH; on bronze hoop A. Greek style.

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36/16 Sternberg, Aukt. 22 (1989) no. 474. BL.

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C. Negro heads; profile

Identified from the curly (beaded) hair, some with earring, collar or thick lips.

West

36/17 Gibraltar 25, from Gorham's Cave. AJBA 2 (1972) 135, fig. 3 (Culican); Lopez de la Orden, no. 4. BH.

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36/18 Cagliari 19864. OrAnt 18 (1979) pl. 17d. BH. Crescent collar with globules. III

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36/19 Cagliari 9487 (Spano 37). OrAnt 18 (1979) pl. 17c. BH. Crescent neckline. III

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36/20 Cagliari 9553 (Spano 86). OrAnt 18 (1979) pl. 17e. BH. III

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36/21 Cagliari 19865. AG pl. 15.83; OrAnt 18 (1979) pl. 17e. BH;PB. Hair summary, but thick-lipped. II

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36/22 Tharros pl. 60d (BM ANE 133461), London no. 409. BH; PB. I

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36/23 Tharros pl. 60f. (BM ANE 133309), London no. 408, pl. 7. BH. III

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36/24 From the tophet, Sulcis. RSF 1 (1973) pl. 63.10. BL. I

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36/25 Carthage no. 588. BH. Hoop earring. I

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36/26 Carthage no, 589. BH. I

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36/27 Kerkouan Museum. REPPAL 9 (1995) pl. 15.35. BH. I

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D. Youthful heads

Two add an arm holding a flower to the nose, a Greek motif though not on gems. On two others the raised hand is either turned to the mouth, rather as Horus, or turned away, in the gesture of adoration. The types, where detailed, are Greek.

West

36/28 Ibiza no. 105 (Madrid 37019). BH. Slim arm holding flower. III

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36/29 Ibiza no. 106 (Ibiza 4282). BH. Slim arm with hand held before mouth. IV

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36/30 Ibiza no. 104 (Barcelona 9350). BH. I

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36/31 Ibiza no. 109 (Madrid 37022). BH. I

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36/32 Madrid, Lazaro Galdiano Coll. (info Spier).

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36/33 Cagliari 19866. AG pl. 15.80. BH. Wavy hair. III

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36/34 Cagliari 383. Anecd pl. 25.B20. BH. Wavy hair with long back locks, slim arm holding flower. III

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36/35 Cagliari 19868. BH. Long crescent at neck, perhaps just a cut-off but resembling a crocodile. III

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36/36 Tharros pl. 60e (BM ANE 133166), London no. 411, pl. 7. Studia Punica 1 (1987) pl. 3b (Pisano). BH. III

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36/37 Tharros pl. 60g (BM ANE 133691), London no. 412, pl. 7. BH; small beetle back. Small features, closely cross-hatched hair (cf. Ibiza 108). III

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36/38 From Monte Luna. RSF 8 (1980) pl. 96.1 (Costa). BH.

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36/39 Milan, Torno Coll. From Sardinia (prob.). Studia Punica 1 (1987), pl. 1.2 (Pisano). BH; PB. Gross features.

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36/40 Malibu, from Sicily. IR no. 118. BH:PB. I

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E. Other; facing and three-quarter

West

36/41 Ibiza no. 110 (Madrid 37018). BH;PT. Facing bearded head with profile neck, as three-quarter. I

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36/42 Tharros pl. 60b (BM ANE 133366). BH. Facing head of youth, neck and shoulder in profile. III

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36/43 Carthage no. 592. Apparently a three-quarter beardless head. III

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36/44 Carthage no. 709. Quillard, no. 59, pl. 6b. BH. In mount. Facing beardless head with beaded hair and crescent collar. I

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36/45 Cagliari? Frontal woman's head? BAS 9.30.

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36/46 Carthage no. 593. BH. Three-quarter bearded head, collared. I

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Other

36/47 Harvard, Sackler 1986.556. BH. Facing bearded head with flat-topped crown, long hair gathered at either side of neck and a semicircular collar.

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Other materials

Type A

36/X1 Tharros pl. 53a (BM ANE 133639). AGGems no. 233. Plain glass scarab. BH; in plain gold mount and hoop A. The helmet reversed.

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36/X2 Karthago II, no. 200. Clay bulla. BH.

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36/X3 Karthago II, no. 201. Clay bulla. RM 100 (1993) pl. 65.7. In mount.

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Type C

36/X4 From Villaricos. Astruc, pl. 20.17. Glass. BH; on gold band hoop A.

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36/X5 New York, Rosen 48. de Clercq no. 2823, pl. 19. Blue glass scaraboid. BH.

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Type D

36/X6 Karthago II, no. 163 and III, no. 182. Clay bulla. RM 100 (1993) pl. 64.7; Antike Welt 28 (1997) 414, fig. 23. BH. Concentric rows of locks. Slim arm with hand raised and turned away.

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Type E

36/X7 Ibiza no. 233 (Barcelona 9270). Cornelian. BH. Three-quarter youth's head.

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36/X8 Karthago II, no. 295. Clay bulla. RM 100 (1993) pl. 60.1. BH. Bearded head.

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36/X9 Karthago II, no. 263. Clay bulla. BH. Youth's head.

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