38. Lions

Most of the types are Egyptian, contaminated with various Levantine and even Greek motifs.

A. Head with foreleg

West

38/1 Ibiza no. 138 (Madrid 37025). BL. II

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38/2 Cagliari 7, from Tharros. BH;PB. Faced by profile head of satyr. I

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38/3 Cagliari 9510 (Spano 62), from Tharros. AG pl. 15.90. BH. As the last. III

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38/4 Cagliari 370, from Tharros. Anecd pl. 26.B29. BH. V

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East

38/5 Munich no. 375, from Rhodes. AGGems no. 375. BH.

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Other

38/6 Copenhagen NM. With limb? V

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B. Seated with facing head

The type is Egyptian but not all the accompanying motifs.

West

38/7 Ibiza no. 88 (Madrid 37028). BH;EXCR. Head and forearm of Bes behind. I

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38/8 Cagliari 371, from Tharros. Anecd pl. 24.B3; Hölbl, Sard no. 238. BH;EXnb. Lion forepart behind; star and disc-and-crescent above; double-crowned uraeus in front. I

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38/9 Cagliari 19763, from Tharros. BL;EXCR. Ape seated on nbw behind; flying falcon above; double-crowned uraeus in front. I

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38/10 Cagliari 19813, from Tharros. BL;EXCR. Disc-and-crescent behind; plant in front. Summary. II/III

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38/11 Cagliari 19815, from Tharros. BH. Three plants (?) behind. III

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38/12 Sassari, Mus. Sanna 2850 (Chessa), from Sardinia. Ebers, pl. H 85; RendVat 51/2 (1982) 302, fig. 1 (Moscati); Hölbl, Sard no. 237; Along the Routes 78. BL;EXnb. Forepart of Bes behind, holding tail; double-crowned uraeus in front; star above. III

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38/13 Sclavo Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. A 57; Hölbl, Sard no. 236bis. BL;EXCR. Uraeus in front; disc-and-crescent above.

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38/14 S. Carta Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. A 56; Hölbl, Sard no. 236. BH;EXO. Uraeus in front and behind.

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38/15 Palermo 18083. RSF 14 (1986) pl. 26.2-3 (Verga). BL;EXO. Double-crowned uraeus in front; ape holding plume seated on nbw behind; flying falcon above.

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38/16 Carthage no. 540, BH;EXnb. Bes upper part holds lion's tail; double-crowned uraeus in front; disc-and-crescent above. I

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38/17 Carthage no. 541. BL; EXnb. As the last, but a fish above. I

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38/18 From Alcacer do Sal (Portugal). Actas do II. Congr.Nac.de Arq., Coimbra (1971) 312-3, pl. 3.3. BL;EXnb. Crowned uraeus behind; staff (?) in front.

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East

38/19 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq (E 25926). BH;EXnb. Bes head behind; disc-crowned uraeus in front; winged disc above.

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38/20 Paris, Bibl.Nat., de Clercq no. 2500, pl. 16 (E 25907). Nunn no. 74. BL. Crocodile in exergue. Double-crowned uraeus in front; seated ape over nbw behind; flying vulture above. I

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38/21 London market, from Lebanon. BL; in silver mount. Crocodile in exergue. Double-crowned uraeus in front; forepart of Bes holding a branch (?) behind; quadruped (?) above.

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Other

38/22 London no. 280, pl. 5 (BM ANE 103306), 'from Byblos?'. Tassie, no. 68; AG pl. 7.34; Biblo pl. 5.16 (Gubel); RSF 8 (1980) pl. 4.6 (Bisi). BL;EXnb. Double-crowned uraeus in front; Bes upper part behind holding lion's tail; letter (?) above. I

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38/23 Munich no. 220, pl. 24. BL;EXnb. Ape seated behind; winged disc above.

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38/24 Private. As de Clercq no. 2500 but EXCR.

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C. Seated, profile

West

38/25 Ibiza no. 137 (Ibiza 4568). BH;EXCR; on a silver hoop B. Long muzzle. IV

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38/26 Visc. Asquer Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 68. BL;EXCR. Two lions, paws raised, heads averted.

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38/27 Cagliari 354, from Tharros. BH. Head averted. III

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38/28 Cagliari 19814, from Tharros. BL;EXnb. Paw raised; disc-and-crescent above. III

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38/29 From the tophet, Sulcis. RSF 1 (1973) pl. 63.11 (Bartolini). BL. Front missing.

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East

38/30 Jerusalem, Israel Museum 76-42 2381. BH;EXO. Head averted.

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Other

38/31 Zurich market, NAAG Cat. 7 (1991) no. 70. In field four circles with centre dots.

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D. Walking, crouching

West

38/32 Cagliari 19811, from Tharros. Atti I.Conv.Ital. pl. 13.5. BH. Head frontal; a letter (dalet/res) below. Bristling mane: style of the Greek Group of the Cyprus Lions (AGGems 130-2). I

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38/33 Cagliari 9465 (Spano 77), from Tharros. BL. II

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38/34 Cagliari 19819, from Tharros. BH;PB. Branch over back. IV

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38/35 Cagliari 9545 (Spano 106), from Tharros. BH. III

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38/36 Cagliari 381, from Tharros. BH; Anecd pl. 26.B30. BH. Head averted. III

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38/37 Cagliari 15, from Tharros. BH, in silver mount and hoop A. Head averted.

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38/38 Paris, Cab.Med., once Lord Vernon Coll., from Tharros. Marmora, pl. B 60. BH. Head averted; branch before, ankh above.

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38/39 Chessa Coll., from Tharros. Ebers, pl. H64; Hölbl, Sard no. 235. BL. Walking with head frontal (Greek style); winged disc above.

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38/40 From Carthage. Arch.Viva I.2, 68, fig. 5 (tomb of first half of 5th century). BH.

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38/41 Paris, BN, Pauvert no. 54, pl. 5, from Caserta. BH;EXnb. Head facing; two plants in front. I

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East

38/42 Ashkelon 31188, from Ashkelon. CSAPI no. 60. BL. III

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38/43 Jerusalem, Rockefeller Museum, from Tell abu Hawam. QDAP 4 (1985) 18, no. 47. BL.

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38/44 Unknown, from Turkey. BL. Head averted.

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38/45 Nicosia A.I. 2722, from Agia Irini. SCE II, pl. 250.7; Reyes, no. 106. BL.

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38/46 Oxford III, no. 524 (1890.100), from Tartus. Nunn no. 84. Scaraboid. BH. III

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Other

38/47 Paris, BN, Pauvert no. 53, pl. 5. BH;EXnb. Head facing; papyrus in front. I

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38/48 Copenhagen NM. BL;EXCR. Head turned back; over seven tall flowers. VI

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38/49 London, Hay.

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E. Rolling

With hindlegs splayed. The head is turned back to the splayed rear legs. Cf. AGGems no. 401.

West

38/50 Ibiza no. 139 (Barcelona 9388). BH. I

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38/51 Cagliari 9534 (Spano 85), from Tharros. BH. V

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38/52 Cagliari 19812, from Tharros. AG pl. 15.84. BL; on silver hoop C. V

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F. With cub

38/53 Bonn, Müller Coll. BH;PB. Head averted to suckling cub. A bud at the border in front.

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G. Other

38/54 Nicosia A.I. 2707, from A. Irini. SCE II, pl. 250.2; Reyes, no. 105. BL;EXCR. Two rampant lions face each other. Disc-and-crescent above. III

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Other materials

Type A

38/X1 Paris, BN, Pauvert no. 50, from Etruria. Cornelian. Beaded border. Forepart.

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Type B

38/X2 Cagliari 19816, from Tharros. Cornelian. BH;EXnb; in gold mount and hoop A. A flower behind.

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Type C

38/X3 Nicosia, from Kition. Kition II, no. 1072. Reyes, fig. 27b. Clay bulla. In thicket.

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Type D

West

38/X4 Ibiza no. 237 (Ibiza 4247). Pale green glass.

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38/X5 Cartagena Mus., from Cartagena. Padro, New 36.01. 'Yellowy-ochre siliceous'. BH; in a silver hoop B.

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38/X6 Cagliari 15011, from Caralis. Agate. BH.

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38/X7 Cagliari 391, from Tharros. Anecd pl. 26.B31. Agate. BH.

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38/X8 Cagliari 9589 (Spano 79), from Tharros. Ebers, pl. G52; Hölbl, Sard no. 241. Cornelian. BH; EXnb. Recumbent; a large palm tree in the background.

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East

38/X9 Boston 98.738, from Cyprus. AG pl. 61.8. Cornelian in gold hoop. B*;EXCR. Reclining in papyrus thicket.

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Other

38/X10 Unknown; Impronti III, 146. EXCR. Reclining, facing head, in papyrus thicket.

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Type E

38/X11 London no. 419, pl. 7, from Sardinia; LRings no. 1007. Cornelian. BH; on gold mount with wavy wire sides on a massive silver hoop A, with a knob within the hoop.

No image available