Main Site Gandhara ConnectionsVase Corpus (CVA Online)

310395, ATHENIAN, Vatican City, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco Vaticano, Vatican City, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco Vaticano, 16757

  • Vase Number: 310395
  • Fabric: ATHENIAN
  • Technique: BLACK-FIGURE
  • Shape Name: AMPHORA, BELLY, TYPE A
  • Provenance: ITALY, ETRURIA, VULCI
  • Date: -575 to -525
  • Inscriptions: EXEKIAS
    Kalos/Kale: ONETORIDES
    Speech: TESARA, TRIA
  • Attributed To: EXEKIAS by SIGNATURE
  • Current Collection: Vatican City, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco Vaticano: 344
  • Previous Collections:
    • Vatican City, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco Vaticano: 16757
  • Publication Record: 13-14 (1982) 68, FIG.1 (A)
    94, FIG.5 (A)
    Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae: 32 (1989) FIG.1 AT P.28 (A)
    Albersmeier, S. (ed.), Heroes, Mortals and Myths in ancient Greece (Baltimore, 2009): 43, FIG.14 (A)
    Aloni, A., and Ornaghi, M. (eds.), Tra panellenismo e tradizioni locali, Nuovi contributi (Messina, 2011): 77, FIG.3 (A)
    American Journal of Archaeology: 100 (1996) 65, FIG.8 (PART OF B)
    Angiolillo, S., Arte e cultura nell'Atene di Pisistrato e dei Pisistratidi (Bari, 1997): 126, FIG.71 (A)
    Archeo, Attualita di Passato: 172 (JUNE 1999) 46 (COLOUR OF A)
    Archeo, Attualita di Passato: 80 (OCTOBER 1991) 74-75 (COLOUR OF A)
    Averna, E., Intrattentmenti ludici dalla preistoria al medioevo (Rome, 2009): 294, FIG.136 (A)
    Barringer, J.M., The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Greece (Cambridge, 2014): 164-165, FIGS.3.32A-B (COLOUR OF BD)
    Beazley, J.D., Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters (Oxford, 1956): 145.13, 686
    Beazley, J.D., Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters (Oxford, 1956): 672.3
    Beazley, J.D., Paralipomena (Oxford, 1971): 60
    Belozerskaya, M. and Lapatin, K., Ancient Greece, Art, Architecture, History (London, 2004): 48 (COLOUR OF A)
    Bielfeldt, R. (ed.), Ding und Mensch in der Antike. Gegenwart und Vergegenwärtigung (Heidelberg, 2014): 344, FIG.31 (A)
    Boardman, J. (ed.), La ceramica antica (Milan, 1984): 200 (A)
    Boardman, J. (ed.), The Oxford History of Classical Art (Oxford, 1993): 75, FIG.70 (A)
    Boardman, J. with Charleston, R.J., Cook, R.M., and Hennessy, J.B., Die Keramik der Antike, Mesopotamien, Agypten, Griechenland, Italien (Freiburg, Basel, and Wien, 1985): 200 (COLOUR OF A)
    Boardman, J., The history of Greek vases: potters, painters and pictures (London, 2001): 62-63, FIGS.80-81 (A, B)
    Buranelli, F., Gli scavi a Vulci della societa Vincenzo Campanari-Governo Pontifico 1835-1837 (Rome, 1991): 13, FIG.4 (A)
    Buranelli, F., La raccolta Giacinto Guglielmi (Rome, 1989): 23, FIG.10 (A)
    Cambiano, G. et al., Lo spazio letterario della Grecia Antica (Salerno, 1992): PL.8 (COLOUR OF A)
    Carpenter, T.H., with Mannack, T. and Mendonca, M., Beazley Addenda, 2nd edition (Oxford, 1989): 40
    Carratelli, G.P. (ed.), I Greci in Occidente (1996): 91 (COLOUR OF A)
    Carratelli, G.P. (ed.), The Greek World: Art and Civilization in Magna Graecia and Sicily (New York and Milan, 1996): 91 (COLOUR OF A)
    Clark, A.J. and Gaunt, J., Essays in Honor of Dietrich von Bothmer, Allard Pierson Series 14 (Amsterdam, 2002): PL.54D-E (PARTS OF A AND B)
    Cook, R.M., Greek Painted Pottery (London, 1966): PL.22 (B)
    Cook, R.M., Greek Painted Pottery 3rd ed. (London, 1997): PL.22 (B)
    D'Agostino, B. et al., Alba della citta, alba delle immagini? (Athens 2008): 96, FIG.5 (PART OF A)
    Dietrich, N. and Squire, M. (eds.), Ornament and Figure in Graeco-Roman Art, Rethinking visual Ontologies in Classical Antiquity (Berlin and Boston, 2018): 93, FIG.3.5 (A)
    Dietrich, N., Figur ohne Raum? Bäume und Felsen in der attischen Vasenmalerei des 6. und 5. Jahrhunderts v. Chr., Image & Context 7 (Berlin, 2010): 116, FIG.91 (A)
    Dowden, K. and Livingstone, N. (eds.), A Companion to Greek Mythology (Malden, 2011): 414, FIG.21.1 (A)
    Echos du Monde Classique, Classical Views: 12 (1993) 195, PL.1.1 (PART OF A)
    Enciclopedia dell'Arte Antica: SUPP.II.1, COLOUR PLATE AT P.533.1 (PART OF A)
    Filser, W., Die Elite Athens auf der attischen Luxuskeramik, Image & Context 16 (Berlin, Munich, Boston, 2017): 465, FIG.300 (B)
    Frontisi-Ducroux, F., Du Masque au Visage, Aspects de l'identite en Grece ancienne (Paris, 1995): 153, PL.14-15 (A, PARTS OF A)
    Fullerton, M.D., Greek Art (Cambridge, 2000): 93, FIG.64 (COLOUR OF A)
    Furtwängler, A. and Reichhold, K., Griechische Vasenmalerei (Munich, 1904-32): PLS.131-132 (A, B)
    Gaifman, M., Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (Oxford, 2012): 43, FIG.1.6 (A)
    Girard, T., L'oblique dans le monde grec (Oxford, 2015): 60, FIG.13 (A)
    Gymnasium: 100 (1993) 407, FIG.9 (DRAWING OF PART OF B)
    Hedreen, G., Capturing Troy, The Narrative Functions of Landscape in Archaic and Early Classical Greek Art (Ann Arbor, 2001): FIG.21 (A)
    Hephaistos: 11/12 (1992/93) 15, FIG.4 (A)
    Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens: 71.4 (2002) 425, FIG.6 (A)
    Hurwit, J.M., Artists and Signatures in Ancient Greece (Cambridge, 2015): VII (COLOUR OF PART OF A), 81, FIG.41 (A)
    Immerwahr, H., Attic Script, A Survey (Oxford, 1990): PL.7.29 (A)
    Junker, K., Griechische Mythenbilder, Eine Einfuhrung in ihre Interpretation (Stuttgart, 2005): 168, FIG.37 (A)
    Junker, K., Interpreting the Images of Greek Myths, An Introduction (Cambridge, 2012): 193, FIG.48 (DRAWING OF A)
    Kader, I. (ed.), Penelope rekonstruiert, Geschichte und Deutung einer Frauenfigur, Sonderausstellung des Museums fur Abgusse Klassischer Bildwerke Munchen 9. Oktober bis 15. Januar 2007 (Munich, 2007): 102, 127, FIGS.4.5, 5.4 (PARTS OF A)
    Kunze-Götte, E., Myrte (Kilchberg, 2006): 19, FIGS.5A-B (PARTS OF B)
    Kurtz, D. (ed.), Essays in Classical Archaeology for Eleni Hatzivassiliou 1977-2007 (Oxford, 2008): 103, FIG.1 (DRAWING OF B)
    Kurtz, D.C. (ed.), Greek Vases, Lectures by J.D. Beazley (Oxford, 1989): PL.6 (B)
    Kéi, N., L'esthétique des fleurs, kosmos, poikilia et kharis dans la céramique attique du VIe et du Ve siècle av. n. ère, ICON 22 (Berlin and Boston, 2022): 83, 246, FIGS.58, 193 (DETAIL OF A, B)
    Lang-Auinger, C. and Trinkl, E. (eds.), Griechische Vasen als Medium für Kommunikation. Ausgewählte Aspekte. Akten des internationalen Symposiums im Kunsthistorischen Museum Wien, 5.-7. Oktober 2017. CVA Österreich, Beiheft 3 (Vienna, 2021): 79, FIG.1 (COLOUR OF A)
    Lang-Auinger, C. and Trinkl, E. (eds.), Phyta kai Zoia. Pflanzen und Tiere auf griechischen Vasen, Beihefte zum Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum Österreich, Band 2 (Vienna, 2015): 98, FIG.2 (B)
    Langdon, S. (ed.), Exploring the Culture of Geometric Greece (Columbia, 1997): 70, FIG.5 (PART OF A)
    Laser, S., Sport und Spiel, Archeologia Homerica (Göttingen, 1987): PL.T5B (A)
    Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae: VIII, PL.111, TYNDAREOS 9 (PART OF B)
    Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae: VIII, PL.774, SILENOI 187 (PART OF A)
    Lichtenberger, A. et al. (eds.), Das Diadem der Hellenistischen Herrscher. Ubernahme, Transformation oder Neuschopfung eines Herrschaftszeichens? (Bonn, 2012): 240, FIG.19 (A)
    Lydakis, S., Ancient Greek Painting and its Echoes in Later Art (Athens, 2002): 86-87, FIGS.64-65 (COLOUR OF A AND B)
    Mackay, E.A., Tradition and Originality, A Study of Exekias (Oxford, 2010): COLOUR PLATE I, PLS.77-78, CHARTS 1.6, 2.3, 3.7, 4.2, 5.2, 6.3, 8.1, 10.1 (A, B, UH, PARTS, COLOUR OF PARTS)
    Mandolesi, A., and Sannibale, M. (eds.), Etruschi. L'ideale eroico e il vino lucente (Milan, 2012): 117, FIG.9 (COLOUR OF A)
    Mannack, T., Griechische Vasenmalerei, Eine Einführung, 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 2012): 122, FIG.71 (DRAWINGS OF A)
    Meyer, M. and Adornato, G. (eds.), Innovations and Inventions in Athens c. 530 to 470 BCE: Two Crucial Generations. Wiener Forschungen zur Archäologie 18 (Vienna, 2020): FIG.8.14 (A)
    Moignard, E., Master of Attic Black-Figure Painting. The Art and Legacy of Exekias (London and New York, 2015): FRONTCOVER AND FRONTISPICE, 34, FIG.6, PLATE 1 (A AND B, COLOUR OF A)
    Moreno, P., La pittura Greca dalle origini ad Apelle, Archeo Dossier 34: 21 (COLOUR OF A)
    Morford, M. et al., Classical Mythology, International Ninth Edition (Oxford, 2011): 483 (A)
    Muse, Annual of the Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Missouri-Columbia: 23/24 (1989/90) 48, FIG.1 (A)
    Neer, R.T., Style and Politics in Athenian Vase-Painting, The Craft of Democracy, ca.530-460 B.C.E. (Cambridge, 2002): 35, FIG.7 (A)
    Onians, J., Classical Art and the Cultures of Greece and Rome (New Haven, 1999): 83, FIG.65 (A)
    Osborne, R., Archaic and Classical Greek Art, Oxford History of Art (Oxford, 1998): 106, FIG.51 (A)
    Pallotino, M. et al., Les Etrusques e l'Europe (Paris, 1992): 328-329 (COLOUR OF A AND B)
    Pallottino, M. (ed.), Die Etrusker und Europa: Paris 1992, Berlin 1993 (Milan and Paris, 1992): 328-329 (COLOUR OF A AND B)
    Papandrea, G.C., I Bronzi di Riace tra storia e legenda (Rome, 1990): 32, 34, 160 (A, B, INCLUDING COLOUR PL)
    Papers on the Amasis Painter and his World (Malibu, 1987): 161, FIG.6 (B)
    Pasquier, A., Euphronios: genie de la peinture grecque, Archeologia hors serie numero 1 (Dijon, 1991): 33 (A)
    Pedley, J.G., Greek Art and Archaeology (New Jersey, 1993): FRONTCOVER, 188, FIG.6.68 (COLOUR OF A)
    Pedley, J.G., Greek Art and Archaeology. Fifth Edition (London, 2011): 195, FIG.6.80 (COLOUR OF A)
    Plantzos, D., Greek Art and Archaeology, c. 1100-30 BC (Athens, 2016): 92, FIG.135 (COLOUR OF PART OF A)
    Platt, V. and Squire, M. (eds.), The Frame in Classical Art: A Cultural History (Cambridge, 2017): 134, FIG.2.7 (A)
    Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P., Archaeology, Theory, Methods and Practice, 6th edition (London, 2012): 413 (COLOUR OF A AND PART OF B)
    Renfrew, C., and Bahn, P., Archaeology, Theories, Methods and Practice, 2nd edition (London, 1996): 396 BOTTOM (A)
    Reusser, C. and Bürge, M. (eds.), Exekias hat mich gemalt und getöpfert: Ausstellung in der Archäologischen Sammlung der Universität Zürich, 9.11.2018-31.3.2019 (Zurich, 2018): 55, 75, 106, 113-124, FIGS.16-17, 24, 59,62-74 (COLOUR, PROFILE)
    Revue du MAUSS: 2015 (2) 46, 82, FIG.1 (A)
    Rohl, D.M., The Lords of Avaris, Uncovering the Legendary Origins of Western Civilization (London, 2007): 207, FIG.200 (A)
    Sansone, D., Ancient Greek Civilization, 2nd edition (Oxford, 2009): 102, FIG.31 (A)
    Scheibler, I., Griechische Töpferkunst, Herstellung, Handel und Gebrauch der antiken Tongefässe (Munich, 1983): 87, FIG.77 (PART OF B)
    Scheibler, I., Griechische Töpferkunst, Herstellung, Handel und Gebrauch der antiken Tongefässe, 2nd ed. (Munich, 1995): 87, FIG.77 (PART OF B)
    Schierup, S. & Rasmussen, B.B. (eds.), Red-figure Pottery in its Ancient Setting, Gosta Enbom Monographs 2 (Copenhagen, 2012): 146, FIG.14 (PART OF A)
    Shapiro, H.A., Art and Cult under the Tyrants in Athens (Mainz, 1989): PL.67D (B)
    Smith, T.J. and Plantzos, D. (eds.), A Companion to Greek Art (Malden, 2012): I, PL.2 (COLOUR OF A)
    Spivey, N., Greek Sculpture (Cambridge, 2013): 21, FIG.2.4 (B)
    Spivey, N., Understanding Greek Sculpture, Ancient Meanings, Modern Readings (London, 1996): 18, FIG.6 (PART OF B)
    Stansbury-O'Donnell, M.D., A History of Greek Art (Oxford, 2015): 204, FIG.8.24 (COLOUR OF A)
    Stansbury-O'Donnell, M.D., Looking at Greek Art (Cambridge, 2011): 69, FIG.28 (A)
    Strauss Clay, J., Malkin, I., and Tzifopoulos, Y.Z. (eds.), Panhellenes at Methone, Graphe in Late Geometric and Protoarchaic Methone, Macedonia (ca 700 BCE), Trends in Classics 44 (Berlin and Boston, 2017): 93, FIG.41 (PART OF A)
    Studi Etruschi: 69 (2003) PL.14B (B)
    Stutzinger, D., Griechen, Etrusker und Römer: Eine Kulturgeschichte der Antiken Welt im Spiegel der Sammlungen des Archäologischen Museums Frankfurt (Regensburg, 2012): 74, FIG.65B (PART OF B)
    The Dictionary of Art: XXXII, 44 (A)
    Tiverios, M.A., Elliniki techni, archaia angaia (Athens, 1996): 86-87, FIGS.47-48 (COLOUR OF B AND PART OF A)
    Torelli, M., The Etruscans (Milan, 2000): 510-511 (COLOUR OF A AND B)
    Tsaknis, N., Trophies of the Argonauts (Volos, 2004): 72 (COLOUR OF B)
    Valavanis, P. and Manakidou, E., Egraphsen kai epoiesen. Essays on Greek Pottery and Iconography in Honour of Professor Michalis Tiverios (Thessaloniki, 2014): 194, FIG.2 (DRAWING OF A)
    Vollmer, C., Im Anfang war der Thron. Studien zum leeren Thron in der griechischen, romischen und fruhchristlichen Ikonographie (Rahden, 2014): PL.15, FIG.4 (PART OF B)
    Walter-Karydi, E., Die Athener und ihre Gräber (1000-300 v.Chr.) (Berlin, 2015): 72-73, FIGS.36A-B (DRAWING OF A AND B)
    Woodford, S., An Introduction to Greek Art. Sculpture and Vase Painting in the Archaic and Classical Periods. 2nd edition (London, 2015): 24, FIG.23 (COLOUR OF A)
    Wünsche, R., Der Torso, Ruhm und Rätsel (Munich, 1998): 128, FIG.187 (A)
    Yoshikawa, I, Special Exhibition of Ancient Greek Vases from Japanese Collections (Nara, 1988): 12 BOTTOM (A)
  • AVI Web:
  • AVI Record Number: 6979
  • LIMC ID: 2589
  • LIMC Web:
  • CAVI Collection: Rome, Vatican 344.
  • CAVI Lemma: BF amphora. From Vulci. Exekias. Third quarter sixth. 540-530.
  • CAVI Subject: A: Achilles and Ajax playing a board game. B: Castor and Pollux, with Tyndareus and Leda.
  • CAVI Inscriptions: On the reserved topside of the mouth: [Εχσε]κιας εγραφσε καποιεσε με{1}. A: to left of Achilles' back: Εχσεκιας εποιεσεν. To left of Achilles' helmet: Αχιλ[λ]εος, retr. From near Achilles' mouth: τεσ[σ]αρα. To left of Ajax' mouth: τρια, retr. Above Ajax' head: Αιαντος, retr. To right of Ajax' back: Ονετ̣οριδες κ̣αλος. B: above Pollux' head: Πολυδευκες. To left of Leda's back, facing her: Λεδα, retr. Below Castor's horse: Ονετοριδε[ς] καλος, retr.{2}. Above his head: Καστορ. To right of Castor's horse's hind legs, facing them: Κυλ[λ]αρος. To left of Tyndareos' face, facing him: Τυνδαρ(ε)ος, retr.{3}.
  • CAVI Footnotes: {1} an Iambic trimeter, as on Berlin 1720, but not so carefully planned as a half-circle; by my calculation, the inscription takes considerably less space. It is not well preserved and both Albizzati, fig. 63, and FR 35 (facs.), show a number of imperfect letters. {2} omitted in ARV[2], or rather conflated with the inscription on A, which is not retr. {3} the epsilon is miswritten, see AttScr (1990), 139, bottom (the sign is omitted on p. 33, but see the chart, p. 35).
  • CAVI Comments: Mommsen thinks A is not political propaganda but heroizes Ajax after the conquest of Salamis. Moore: Κυλ[λ]αρος = a horse whose back is incurving, see F. Jeschonnek, De nominibus quae Graeci pecudibus domesticis indiderunt (diss. Königsberg 1885) 48. Arias–Hirmer–Shefton (1962), pl. 17, figs. 62-63. S. Markman, The Horse in Greek Art (Baltimore 1943) 49. [Note the horse is named as a stallion but the genitals are not shown.] Moore (1968), 365, discusses the subject of B: F. Hauser, FR iii, 67, and Neutsch, MarbJb 15 (1949) 59, opt for departure; Dev.[1] 66, argues for homecoming. E. A. Mackay, AJA 83 (1979) 474-76, pl. 66, fig. 1 (B) also argues for homecoming, but from accustomed activities, not an adventure. Hermary (1978), 61 (summarizes the interpretations of B).
  • CAVI Number: 6979
  • AVI Bibliography: Kretschmer (1894), 185. — FR (1904–32), iii, 65-72, fig. 35 (facs. of signature), pls. 131-32. — Albizzati (1929), 127-33, figs. 62-68, pls. 40-42. — Blösch (1951), 29, n. 2. — Dev.[1] (1951), 65-67, pls. 28-29 (B). — ABV (1956), 145/13, 686. — Moore (1968), 358/10, pl. 119, fig. 1 (A). — Para. (1971), 60. — H. Mommsen (1980), 139ff. — CEG (1983–9), i, no. 437. — Dev.[2] (1986), pls. 64-66; 66,1 (ph. of signature, very hard to read). — H. Mommsen (1988), 445-54 (bibl.). — Add.[2] (1989), 40 (vast bibl.). — Shapiro (1989), 152 n. 67 (bibl.). — AttScr (1990), no. 136, fig. 29. — Threatte (1996), 417 (τρια), 418 (τεσ[σ]αρα).
  • CAVI / AVI Data from Henry Immerwahr's Corpus of Attic Vase Inscriptions (CAVI), updated by Rudoph Wachter's Attic Vase Inscriptions (AVI)
  • Image Credits: FURTWANGLER-REICHHOLD DRAWINGS: Please consult with Williams College Special Collections staff and Williams College Visual Resources Center staff, regarding questions about publishing and accessing materials from Williams College Special Collections. Researchers are responsible for handling any copyright issues that may be associated with collections and materials.
  • Pleiades URI:
  • Coordinates: 42.421429,11.702499
  • Pleiades Coordinates: 42.419009,11.6298975
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